The company MARC conducted an important poll for the Center for Liberal Studies – Markos Dragoumis (KEFIM), on the subject of how the Greeks perceive the Revolution of 1821, the role of the protagonists in it, but also the contribution of the Philhellenes.

One of the main findings of the research is that the Revolution of 1821 is a common reference point that unites the Greeks, while demographic characteristics, such as gender and age, income, ideology and educational level have little influence on their views.

An important question concerned the social groups and institutions that contributed decisively to the outbreak of the Revolution of 1821. The public considers that the Friendly Society / Filiki Etaireia (with 94.2%) and the Philhellenes (with 87.1%) played a leading role.

This answer is very honorable for the Greek public opinion, which recognizes and honors the role of the Philhellenes, who fought in Greece and internationally for the independence of Greece.

SHP considers that this result largely justifies its own efforts, and confirms that it will continue its work with the aim of highlighting Greek culture and perpetuating the philhellenic movement internationally.

The research in question contains very interesting information, and you can download it here.

 

 

 

Nike untying her sandal, is a sculpture of the 5th century BC, from the parapet of the temple of Nike (goddess Victory) on the Acropolis. It depicts Nike (Victory) slightly leaning her body to untie her sandal before she enters the sanctuary.

Georgios Vroutos (1843-1908) complemented the ancient sculpture and revived it in its original beauty. The sculpture belongs to the collection of SHP.

SHP has chosen this sculpture as a symbol of the honor and respect that we all show for those who laid the foundations of Greek culture, who expanded it, who protected it, who fought for the principles it stands for and who ensure its dynamics, in the future.

 

The Philhellenism

The Philhellenism emerged 3000 years ago and remains from the Hellenistic and Roman periods, the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, to this day, a dominant current that influences internationally historical, political and social developments, and of course the art and intellect.

 

The Renaissance

After a long dark period in history, the foundations of Greek culture reappeared during the Renaissance, paving new paths for the evolution of humanity.

Greek Mythology has been a constant source of inspiration for many painters since the Renaissance.

Aphrodite (Venus), married to Hephaestus, cheated on him with Aris (Mars), the god of war. The illicit relationship between Love and War inspired many artists. But as the great Renaissance philosopher Marcellus Ficinus wrote: “Aphrodite always rules Mars and never the other way around!”

Venus and Mars. Early 17th century, a painting by an unknown Dutch painter from the environment of Peter Paul Rubens (SHP collection).

 

Ancient Greece conquers European education

In the 18th century, Europe gradually discovered the richness and value of ancient Greek art.

In the middle of the 18th century, Johann Joachim Winkelman recorded Greek art and its beauty, presented Greek culture and laid the foundations for the science of archeology. His books were translated and circulated throughout Europe.

Johann Joachim Winckelmann, “Histoire de l’art chez les anciens”, Paris, 1766 first edition in French (SHP collection).

The trip to Greece

In 1778, archaeologist Jean-Jacques Barthelemy published The Journey of the New Anacharsis in Greece, which became a best seller. This work excited Rigas Feraios, who translated it, published it in Greek and got inspired to design the Charta and to write his Thοurios (two emblematic symbols which led to the uprising of the Greeks).

Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis en Grèce dans le milieu du quatrième siècle avant l’ère vulgaire, Paris 1788, first edition (SHP collection).

The new tour

The search for the cradle of Greek culture has given new dimensions to an early form of cultural tourism. A typical case is that of Choiseul Gouffier. His work Voyage Pittorèsque de la Grèce, shows already from the first page, enslaved Greece and the prospect of its release. Choiseul Gouffier is appointed head of the Greek-language hotel, a secret organization in France that aimed to support the liberation of Greece. Athanasios Tsakalov also took part in this organisation, and when in 1814 he took refuge in Odessa, he took over its archives and the valuable knowledge he had acquired on the operation of secret organizations.

Choiseul Gouffier, Marie Gabriel Florent Auguste de, French diplomat, Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce, Paris, J.-J. Blaise 1782 – the first page presents Greece in the form of a chained slave (SHP collection).

The Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism was born, along with the Enlightenment. One of the leading figures of this movement is the great French-Greek poet Andre Chenier (1762-1794), son of the Greek Cypriot Elizabeth Santi Loumaki Chenier. His mother’s literary salon in Paris was for many years the meeting point of the French intelligentsia and the catalyst for the establishment of the Greek-language hotel, the first secret organization aimed at liberating Greece.

Andre Chenier (1762-1794), “Elegy”, manuscript (SHP collection).

 

The Acropolis of Athens and the Parthenon

The Parthenon was the leading symbol of Hellenism. Top work of Greek architecture, but also a trademark of the Athenian Republic. It was the first monument whose construction was decided by free citizens through a democratic process, based on genius techniques and architecture, while recording with unique aesthetics’ sculptures the struggles of the people and their relationship with the divine. It was undoubtedly the monument that inspired most artists. It became the symbol of the debt of Europeans to Greek culture and therefore to the Greeks fighting for their freedom.

Early 19th century, a painting by the painter P. I. Witdoeck, the Parthenon of the Acropolis (SHP collection).

Romanticism

The philhellenic movement influenced education in Europe and systematically cultivated Greek-centered values ​​in many generations of young people.

One of them is Lord Byron, who relied on his education and visited Greece in 1810, in search of the ruins of ancient classical civilization. Lord Byron evolved into the main representative of Romanticism. A key feature of the romantic hero is the clash with superior forces for an ideal and especially freedom.

Lord Byron (George Gordon, Lord Byron, 1788-1824)
Early 19th century, a painting by an unknown painter, probably a British, depicts Lord Byron, inspired by the work of Childe Harrold’s Pilgrimage (SHP collection).

The Byronic heroes

Byron’s heroes are reflected in every art form. The bride of Abydos, the Giaour, the Corsair, Don Juan, etc. appear in porcelain, paintings, tapestries, table clocks, boxes, etc.

The work of Childe Harrold’s Pilgrimage records the feelings of a young man who realizes and regrets the decadence of the Greek civilization. This book became quickly famous throughout Europe.

“The mountains look on Marathon –
And Marathon looks on the sea;
And musing there an hour alone,
I dream’d that Greece might still be free.”

Mantel clock, early 19th century, the Byronic hero Don Juan (SHP collection).

Mantel clock, early 19th century, the bride of Abydos, from the work of Lord Byron (SHP collection).

Mantel clock, early 19th century, Lord Byron next to the ruins of Greece (SHP collection).

Paper box, early 19th century, Lord Byron (SHP collection).

Beginning of the 19th century, Lord Byron, leading a unit of soldiers, enters in Messolonghi, a dish of the Monterey series (SHP collection).

The bride of Abydos

The Byronic hero Selim is saddened by his forbidden love for his beloved Zuleika.

Middle of the 19th century, a painting by the French painter Alexandre Marie COLIN (Paris, 1798-1875), the bride of Abydos, from the work of Lord Byron (SHP collection).

 

The Greek War of independence

The philhellenic climate that prevails in the public opinion of Europe is strengthened with the start of the Greek War of independence. The Byronic heroes gradually became Greek Revolutionaries and philhellenism influenced every form of art and literary expression. The news from Greece are captured by a number of artists in France.

The fighter’s rest. Middle of the 19th century, a painting by the French painter Eugene Delacroix, a Greek fighter at rest (SHP collection).

 

The first victory of the Greeks – The liberation of Salona

The siege began very quickly, on March 27, 1821. The siege was led by the chieftain Panargias, after he was blessed by the bishop of Salona, ​​Isaiah (a Greek who participated in battles and finally sacrificed himself for the cause). The Turks surrendered in 13 days, on Easter day, April 10, 1821. Panourgias promised to release them if they surrendered their weapons, a promise that he kept.

Early 19th century, hand-painted lithography by the French painter Louis Dupré (1789-1837), the occupation of the Salona fortress by the Greek fighter Nikolakis Mitropoulos raises the flag of the Struggle at Salona (SHP collection).

Konstantinos Kanaris, the fire ship Captain

The achievement of the Konstantis Kanaris (1793-1877) to set fire to the Turkish flagship in Chios (1822) with a fire ship, impressed the public opinion of Western Europe which compared him to David who kills Goliath.

Second part of the 19th century, bronze ensemble of Benedetto CIVILETTI (1846-1899), the fire ship captains Kanaris and Pipinos (SHP collection).

Second half of the 19th century, painting by Konstantinos Volanakis (1837-1907), burning of a Turkish flagship by Kanaris (SHP collection).

Kanaris’ son in Paris

The eldest son of the glorious fire ship Captin, Nikolaos, was educated in France with the children of King Louis-Philippe. Nikolaos Kanaris served as a member of the Supreme Court, a diplomat and then a member of the Greek Parliament and Minister of the Navy. The exact year of his birth is unknown, while he died in 1880.

Beginning of the 19th century, painting by an unknown painter from France, a teacher, educates the son of Kanaris in Paris in geography (SHP collection).

The oath of the Freedom Fighter

Beginning of the 19th century, the painting is attributed to the French painter Michel-Philibert Genod (1796 – 1862), on the subject of the oath and the departure of a young Greek freedom fighter (SHP collection). The artist gives the measure of the nationwide uprising of the Greeks by participating in the struggle of all ages.

Philhellenism as art de vivre

The philhellenic movement makes gradually its presence felt in all European countries and in the United States. Philhellenic committees are established in all major cities, fundraisers are held in favor of the Greeks, volunteers are recruited, weapons are sent in Greece, events are organized and manifestos circulate. This climate of support led to the spread of the philhellenic art repertoire in works of art and objects of daily use of an impressive variety: clocks, vases, cups, plates, bottles, and even wallpapers, represent basic philhellenic themes.

Early 19th century, a bronze ensemble of a Greek freedom fighter with his horse, an evolution of the Byronic hero from Byron’s work the Giaour (SHP collection).

Early 19th century, bottles depicting a Greek couple (SHP collection).

Early 19th century, dishes with themes from the Greek Revolution and reference to the names of Greeks and Philhellenes freedom fighters (SHP collection).

Mantel clock, early 19th century, with a Greek fighter who defends a wounded comrade (SHP collection).

Mantel clock, early 19th century, Greek fighter with his horse (SHP collection).

Mantel clock, early 19th century, with Kanaris the fire ship Captain (SHP collection).

Mantel clock, early 19th century Greek shipwrecked (SHP collection).

Table clock, early 19th century, Greek fighter defends Messolonghi (SHP collection).

The Greek Patriarch Gregorios the 5th

The three pillars on which Philhellenism relied were the sense of debt to the Ancient Greek Civilization, the liberal sentiments against tyranny, and the common Christian faith. Many Europeans saw the Greek Revolution as a struggle of the Cross against the crescent.

Second part of the 19th century, painting by an unknown painter, probably from the United Kingdom, depicts the hanging of Patriarch Gregorios the 5th (SHP collection).

The Souliote

The achievements of the great Souliote chieftains Marcos Botsaris and Kitsos Tzavellas, as well as the fact that they served in the French army (Régiment Souliote), propagated the fame of the Souliotes in Western Europe.

Early 19th century, painting by a follower of the Italian painter Lodovico Lipparini (1802 – 1856), a Souliote fighter (SHP collection).

The Greek fugitives

As we progress through the years of the struggle (the 1820’s), the depiction of scenes from the difficult life of the struggling Greeks is a frequent topic. The fugitives take refuge in the mountains with their wives and children.

Early 19th century, painting by Belgian painter Edouard Charles Dons (1798-1869) (SHP collection).

 

Louis I of Bavaria, the great Philhellene

Philhellenism reached and inspired all social layers. The leading German philhellene was King Ludwig I of Bavaria. Writer Zacharias Papantoniou wrote a century ago, in his book about the son of Ludwig I, and first king of modern Greece, Othon, about the three famous Whitelsbachs: “They had by excellence the romantic element – the power to leave their time for the past and from material life for the dream. All three refused to accept the tangible reality. Ludwig I for his philhellenism, Othon for his national ambitions for Greece (Megali Idea) and Ludwig II for his Wagner-mania, forgot the throne, to live the gigantic phantasmagoria of the ethics and art they created.”

Beginning of the 19th century, painting by unknown painter depicts Ludwig I, with his family, examining the emblematic painting of the German Philhellene painter Peter Von Hess, showing the arrival of Othon in Nafplion (SHP collection).

The German Philhellenism

Along with France, the philhellenic movement took also great proportions in Germany. In addition to Ludwig I, who wrote poems about the struggle of the Greeks, the great romantic poet Wilhelm Müller, known today from the lyrics of Schubert’s song circles “The Beautiful Miller Maid” and “Winter Journey”, was the Philhellene with the greatest influence on the consciousness of his compatriots.

Known in Germany as Müller of the Greeks (Der Griechen Müller), he wrote collections of “Greek” poems in 1820, 1823 and 1824, with characteristic titles such as “The Greeks to the friends of their antiquity”, “The Phanariote”, “The Maid of Athens “, “The Maniatissa”, “The old man of Hydra”, “The Holy Corps”, “The spirits of the ancient heroes on the day of the Resurrection”, “The ruins of Athens to England” and “The hope of Greece”. One of the most beautiful is “Greece and the world” where he connects freedom with Greece and the world, exclaiming:

“Without freedom, what would you be, oh! Greece without you, what would the world be like! ”
«Ohne dieFreiheit, was wärest du Hellas? Ohne dich, Hellas, was wäre die Welt? ».

Many German painters chose Philhellenic themes, expressing their solidarity with the struggle of the Greeks. At the same time, it is the German painters who, through their works, highlighted the heroic dimension of the Greek fighters and their struggle.

Early 19th century, painting by the German-Swiss Philhellene, military and painter Carl Wilhelm Freiherr von Heideck (1788 – 1861), Mosho and Lambros Tzavelas (SHP collection).

Early 19th century, a painting by the German Philhellene painter Peter Von Hess (1792 – 1871), a Philhellene in Greek costume during the Greek Revolution (SHP collection).

Early 19th century, painting by the German Philhellene painter Christian Johann Georg Perlberg (1806-1884), Greek fighters during the battle (SHP collection).

Early 19th century, painting by the German Philhellene painter Christian Johann Georg Perlberg (1806-1884), Greek fighters during a battle (SHP collection).

Early 19th century, painting by the German architect and painter Ludwig Lange (1808 – 1868), the ancient market in Plaka, Athens (SHP collection).

Early 19th century, painting by the German painter and Philhellene Jacobs Paul Emil (1802 – 1866), looting and kidnapping (SHP collection).

First part of the 19th century, dishes with philhellenic content of German production, present scenes from the Greek Revolution (SHP collection).

At the beginning of the 19th century, a pipe of German origin, it depicts Alexandros Ypsilantis and the Holy Corps (SHP collection).

The Sortie of Messolonghi

The heroic resistance of the Greeks in Messolonghi and the Sortie of the free besieged, shocked Europe, especially because Lord Byron lived and died there, and the event received tremendous publicity. After Messolonghi, Philhellenism took the proportions of an avalanche.

Sortie of the Messolonghi garrison (Exodus of the Guards), 10/22 April 1826. To the Most Reverend King of Greece Othon reverently entrusted to Theodoros P. Vryzakis, (Paris, Lemercier, 1856), lithograph engraved by A. Charpentier, based on the painting of Vryzakis (SHP Collection).

Philhellenism and Music

Many Philhellenes composers wrote songs, but also larger compositions dedicated to the struggle of the Greeks. The musical works were presented in order to organize fund raising events, to collect money to send to the Greeks.

Berlioz with La Revolution Grècque (you can watch it here ) and Rossini with Le Siège de Corinthe (you can watch it here ) were the most famous.

Louis Ferdinand Hérold, known from the ballet “The Badly Guuarded Girl”, composed music for the heroic drama “The Last Day of Messolonghi” (Le Dernier Jour de Missolonghi), drame héroïque en trois actes, en vers, avec des chants. Musique de Hérold, Paris, Barba, 1828 (SHP collection).

L’Echo de Navarin, romance hellénique paroles de A. Jarry, Bataille de Navarin: fantaisie brillante pour piano-forte par J. Payer (SHP collection).

The death of Karaiskakis

The “son of the nun”, Georgios Karaiskakis (1782-1827), was together with Kolokotronis, one of the greatest leaders of the Revolution. He took part in countless battles and was fatally wounded in the battle of Faliro on April 22, 1827. He died in the early hours of the next day, surrounded by his rivals.

Early 19th century, painting by the Italian painter A. De Feoli, the death of a Greek fighter, probably Karaiskakis (SHP collection).

The naval battle of Navarino

The naval battle of Navarino (October 1827), in which the combined fleets of England, France and Russia with the Admirals of Codrington, Derigny and Hayden destroyed the Ottoman fleet, was the decisive military event that led to the implementation of the Treaty of London for the Independence of Greece. In Europe, the news of the victory of the Christian forces was reminiscent of the Battle of Nafpaktos – Lepanto (1571) and was celebrated in all major cities in Europe and the United States. The Battle of Navarino was the last major naval battle fought exclusively by sailing ships.

Early 19th century, painting by British painter John Christian Schetky (1778-1874), the naval battle of Navarino (SHP collection).

The Philhellenes

Hundreds of Greek volunteers took part in the struggle of the Greeks and stood by their side in all the critical moments of the Revolution. Many of them have made history internationally.

The first steamship in history to take part in military operations, was the Karteria of the Greek fleet, commanded by the great British Philhellene Frank Abney Hastings (1794 – 1828), who had even financed its weapons. The most important success of Hastings and Karteria was in the Battle of Agali (Itea Bay) on September 17, 1827, where Karteria sank alone the Turkish flagship and destroyed 9 enemy ships.

Portrait of the great British Philhellene Frank Abney Hastings (1794 – 1828), created by the German Philhellene
Karl Krazeisen (1794-1878) (SHP collection).

The slave market

The Philhellenic movement continued also after the establishment of the first modern Greek state. It was present in the art, it financed aid missions to Greece and encouraged many initiatives in favor of the Greeks. One of them had to do with the purchase of Greeks who were sold as slaves in the slave markets of the Ottoman Empire. A large number of slaves were rescued and released after the end of the Revolution. Their drama was reflected trough art in many ways.

Early 19th century, painting by German painter and philhellene Paul Emil Jacobs (1802 – 1866), a scene from the trade of Greek slaves (SHP collection).

Second part of the 19th century, a marble sculpture by the Italian artist Antonio Rossetti (1819 – 1870), the Greek slave (SHP collection).

 

The Cretan knife – An emblematic gift honors a great Philhellene

The Philhellenic movement continued to make its presence felt throughout the 19th and even 20th centuries, and its contribution has always been critical and decisive for the liberation of Greece.

In fact, many Philhellenes of the period 1821 returned to Greece when their assistance was needed it again. The great American Philhellene doctor and philanthropist Dr Samuel Howe, was one of them. He came to Greece for the second time in 1866-67 bringing aid for refugees from Crete during the Cretan Revolution.

Cretan knife 19th century, gift of the Cretans to the American philhellene Dr. Samuel Howe (SHP collection).

Garibaldi’s sword

Philhellenism continued to manifest itself throughout the 19th century, but also into the 20th. For example, in the unsuccessful Greek-Turkish War of 1897, the Italian Philhellene Ricciotti Garibaldi, the leader of a Corps of Garibaldi red-tunics, fought bravely.

However, this Corps returned to Greece and fought again on the side of the Greeks also during the victorious war of 1912-1913, which liberated Greece.

Sword donated by the French to the Italian Ricciotti Garibaldi, when he fought on the French side in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 (SHP collection).

 

The noble hero composer musician Clement Harris

In 1897, the British composer and Philhellene Clement Harris came to Greece, he fought heroically and died for the independence of Greece in the Greek-Turkish war of 1897 in the Five Wells in Arta. He was buried in the Anglican Church of St. Paul in Athens.

A handwritten letter from a relative of Clement Harris to his friends in England, informing them that he was “killed in the Five Wells on April 23, 1897, fighting for the rights of Greece” (SHP collection).

The oath of Lord Byron next to the tomb of Markos Botsaris in Messolonghi,  painting by a follower of the Italian painter Lodovico Lipparini (1802 – 1856), oil on wood, 19th century (SHP collection).

 

Philellenism remains to this day an important cultural, political, social, philosophical and literary movement.

Philhellenism inspires educational and academic programs in all modern societies, and the values ​​on which it is based are the cornerstones of the civilized world.

The trip to Greece and the pilgrimage to the Acropolis of Athens and the other emblematic archeological sites throughout Greece, cause to every free man of today the same feelings as those they caused to Lord Byron 200 years ago.

The Society for Hellenism and Philhellenism supports the cultivation of this spirit internationally, with works and deeds.

 

SHP supports the work of George Malouchos by offering scientific support and access to the document and works of art of its collection.

 

‘21 The Renaissance of Greeks – 25/03/20

‘21 The Renaissance of Greeks – 05/04/20

‘21 The Renaissance of Greeks – 12/04/20

‘21 The Renaissance of Greeks – 18/04/20

 

Sotiris Tsiodras, professor of infectious diseases, doctor

 

Professor Sotiris Tsiodras has contributed decisively with his scientific knowledge, his hyperactivity and his constant presence on all fronts, his ethos, his prestige and his modesty, in the struggle of our society to face the pandemic of COVID19. He is a model for everyone in Greece and internationally.

The example of this man reminds us of the role played by a great Philhellene, Professor Heinrich Treiber, during the cholera epidemic that plagued Athens in 1854.

When the great cholera epidemic struck Athens, and the streets of the city were deserted, the great Philhellene was the only one who crossed the streets on horseback many times every day to be present at the hospital or wherever else he was called, until he was also contaminated by the disease.

Heinrich Treiber, professor, doctor, Philhellene

SHP honors all those heroes who are inspired by the principles of Hellenism to contribute to society.

Google Maps offers a very interesting application. It presents a list of Philhellenes who offered their services to Greece and supported the Greek War of Independence, and indicates on the map the country and the city of origin of each one of them.

This application enables users to have a global view of the geographical regions where the Philhellenic movement was developed, and the provenance of Philhellenes.

Up to date the list mentions 92 names of Philhellenes. SHP will cooperate with Google to extend it to include all known names, and important information on them.

You can access the map and the associated information here.

Greece – allegory
Unknown German painter, probably from Munich. It presents a Greek mother with her child in an allegorical composition symbolizing the survival of Hellenism and its identification with the ancient Greek culture of which it remains a guardian. The painting belonged to the personal collection of the Bavarian prince Ludwig Ferdinand (1859-1949). Oil on canvas. 99 cm x 121 cm. Collection of SHP

Dear friends,

2019 was a particularly creative year for the Society for Hellenism and Philhellenism.

We organized 3 major events in March, June and December 2019. You can find the video of our last event here.

We designed and support constantly the website of SHP (www.eefshp.org), as well as our Facebook page (Hellenic Society and Philhellenism). We have put together an impressive musical ensemble, “Byron’s Muse”, and we already prepare 3 publications and the production of a music CD.

In 2020, we will hire permanent staff to support our goals and exhibit our collection, we will cultivate relationships with the academic community, and we will prepare an extensive program of audiovisual productions, events and activities in Greece and internationally, both for 2020 and above all, for 2021.

Our aim is to promote the principles of Hellenism and Philhellenism internationally, and to encourage the societies inspired by them, to find a position and an equal role on the side of the Greeks, who continue to be the guardians of the humanistic values. We will aim to launch a new philhellenic movement for the 21st century.

We thank you all for your interest in contributing to our work. In this regard, we are preparing a framework for the involvement of our friends and volunteers, which will be soon presented to you.

We wish you all a Merry Christmas and a Happy and Creative New Year 2020.

Society for Hellenism and Philhellenism

info@eefshp.org

19.11.2019, 18h00, Auditorium Theo Angelopoulos, Institut Français d’Athènes

Au principe du « moment philhellène de fin de siècle » en France se trouve le constat que le philhellénisme est un mouvement transnational qui dépasse le contexte historique de son émergence publique –les années 1820- et dure au moins jusqu’à la fin du XIXe siècle.

Dans les années 1890 les « affaires de Crète » et la guerre gréco-turque de 1897 font ressurgir l’élan philhellène en France et en Europe méditerranéenne.

Les intellectuels, publicistes et artistes jouent un rôle éminent dans cette mobilisation politique qui débouche sur une nouvelle vague, peu connue mais lourde de conséquences, de volontariat armé international.

Nous nous proposons de reconstituer l’engagement des universitaires parisiens et les enjeux d’une mobilisation philhellène où voisinent les idéaux de la « diplomatie des
peuples », la mobilisation anti-ottomane après les premiers massacres hamidiens des Arméniens et les arguments culturels et littéraires de défense d’une civilisation commune autour du sort des Grecs.

Gilles Pécout est actuellement recteur de l’académie de Paris et de la région académique d’Ile-de-France et chancelier des universités de Paris.

Ancien membre de l’École française de Rome, il est professeur des universités à l’École normale supérieure de Paris (rue d’Ulm) et titulaire de la chaire « Histoire culturelle et politique de l’Europe méditerranéenne au XIXe siècle » à l’EPHE (Sorbonne-PSL).
Il a également dirigé plusieurs années avec Maurice Aymard, Georges Dertilis le séminaire « Nouveaux États méditerranéens » de l’EHESS dans le cadre de la chaire d’histoire néo-hellénique de l’EHESS occupée par Georges Dertilis et par Kostantinos Kostis.

Historien de l’Italie, il s’est intéressé au philhellénisme européen et achève une recherche sur les intellectuels et volontaires armés italiens et français en 1897. Il a dirigé avec Michel Espagne le volume Philhellénisme et transferts culturels dans l’Europe du XIXe siècle, RIG, 2005 et est notamment l’auteur de Naissance de l’Italie contemporaine, 1770-1922, (1997), Paris, Armand Colin, 2004 ; Penser les frontières de l’Europe XIXe-XXIe s., Paris, PUF, 2004 ; traduction et édition de Le livre Cœur, Edmondo De Amicis, Paris, Presses Rue d’Ulm, 2001, « Culture, éducation et nation dans l’Italie libérale ».

Gilles Pécout a publié 72 articles dans des revues scientifiques françaises et étrangères (Italie, États-Unis, Grèce, Espagne, Japon, Chine) et a été ou demeure membre du comité éditorial des revues : Le mouvement social, Histoire et sociétés rurales, European History Quarterly, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, Bollettino di Italianistica, Società e storia, Memoria e ricerca. Il a dirigé 28 thèses de doctorat en France et en Italie dont deux concernant les rapports avec la Grèce.

Professeur ou conférencier invité à l’Université de Crète (Réthymnon), à l’Université d’Athènes, il a dirigé le volet français du programme européen « Building on the Past » avec l’Université d’Athènes, l’académie de Bratislava et les universités de Londres-UCL, Bielefeld, Stockholm, Groningue, Séville et Lisbonne (ICSTE) qui a favorisé la mobilité des doctorants entre France et Grèce.

Entrée libre, traduction simultanée

 

The lecture will take place on Tuesday, 8 October 2019 at 19:30 in the Stoa Vivliou Gallery (Pesmazoglou 5)

The event is being organized by the College of Emeritus Professors of the University of Athens

The President Dionysios Kokkinos

The Secretary General of Panagiotis Siskos

Those who wish will receive a certificate of lecture attendance.

Le Philhellénisme a été un phénomène politique, social et artistique majeur, propagé partout en Europe à cause de la Guerre d’indépendance Grecque contre les Ottomans en 1821. En essence, le Philhellénisme, dans le sens d’admiration et d’amour pour l’esprit de l’Hellénisme, a des racines anciennes. Il se présente en Rome antique avec comme représentant typique Cicérone. Dans la Renaissance et les Lumières sont contenus des éléments Philhellènes forts, tout comme nous pouvons en retrouver chez les leaders, idéologiques et militaires de la Révolution Américaine.

Ce qui fait du Philhellénisme un mouvement unique, c’est sa grande expansion à tous niveaux sociaux, ainsi que son expression multidisciplinaire à travers la musique, la peinture et les arts plastiques, et même l’art décoratif. En France le phénomène a duré pendant plusieurs décennies, combiné parfois avec le mouvement de l’Orientalisme, surtout en peinture.

Depuis, il y a eu plusieurs mouvements de sympathie et de solidarité de l’opinion publique envers des peuples en tourmente, mais aucun n’a atteint l’ampleur et la force du mouvement Philhellène. La raison n’est autre que le fait que cette expression de solidarité envers les Grecs a comme raison ultime le sentiment d’une dette spirituelle, ou mieux, le sentiment que la cause grecque concerne la substance même de chaque peuple européen, de tout homme et de toute société qui appartient à ce qu’on définit comme la civilisation occidentale.

Le catalogue des Philhellènes dans le domaine des arts et des lettres abonde des personnalités. Les chefs mêmes du Philhellénisme font partie de ce domaine: le Président du Comité de Paris, François- René de Chateaubriand, Lord Byron en Angleterre et Goethe an Allemagne avec le moins connu, mais fervent Wilhelm Müller. En peinture, le sommet qui fut Eugène Delacroix, lequel avait présenté à l’exposition du 1826, « Pour les Grecs », à la Galerie Lebrun, son œuvre fameuse « La Grèce sur les ruines de Missolonghi », aujourd’hui au Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux.

Dans le domaine de la musique, de nombreux compositeurs, fameux et moins fameux, inspirés par des poèmes Philhellènes ou en adaptant d’autres, ont fait de leur muse le serviteur du mouvement Philhellène! Le dénominateur commun de ces textes mis en musique a été le souhait irrépressible des peuples européens pour que la civilisation triomphe sur la barbarie et la croix sur le croissant.

La thématologie comprend plusieurs références et comparaisons avec la gloire de la Grèce antique et la résistance héroïque des Grecs, hommes, femmes et enfants contre le tyran barbare.

Les Philhellènes s’organisent en groupes de type société ou comité et entreprennent des actions, des collectes de fonds ou des simples cotisations, afin de rassembler de l’argent pour la cause. Une forme d’événement de soutien était la soirée musicale avec des chansons Philhellènes, suivie par une collecte de fonds. C’était les femmes de la grande bourgeoisie et de la noblesse qui étaient les plus ferventes organisatrices et qui – chose méconnue – ont fourni et même tissé la plupart des drapeaux de la Guerre d’Indépendance en Grèce.

Des 300 ou presque chansons Philhellènes connues, composées en Europe et aux Etats-Unis, plus de 200 sont composées en France. Par des grands compositeurs comme Berlioz, Rossini, Gounod ou Adam, jusqu’aux amateurs dont plusieurs nobles. La création abonde, comme note Georges Kostantzos (« La Muse Philhellène »), autour des deux grands moments de la Guerre: La prise de Missolonghi et la Bataille de Navarin. Après 1830, la cause ayant obtenu, elle se raréfie.

Les titres des chansons, qui étaient éditées avec au recto des œuvres des grands graveurs de l’époque, révèlent les causes de l’émotion et de l’inspiration créative des compositeurs: « Le Chant des Grecs », « Leonidas à Thermopyles », « La France aux Grecs », « Le réveil des Grecs », « La veuve de Marcos Botsaris », « Byron au champ des Grecs », etc.

Une mention spéciale se doit pour les œuvres de plus grande échelle, comme « La scène Héroïque pour la Révolution Grecque » par Hector Berlioz (1825), le mélodrame « Le dernier jour de Missolonghi » par Louis Ferdinand Hérold et le summum « Le Siège de Corinthe » de Gioacchino Rossini, tragédie lyrique en trois actes présentée au Théâtre de l’Académie Royale de Musique le 9 octobre 1826, avec le but unique de collecter des fonds pour les Grecs. Cette œuvre impressionnante, transcription ou reprise d’une œuvre déjà présentée « Maometto II », finit avec la décision héroïque des chefs militaires et religieux des Grecs de Corinthe de mourir plutôt que se rendre à Mahomet II.

La première grecque n’ait eu lieu que 170 ans après, suite à une proposition insistante que j’avais formulé à l’Opéra d’Athènes, le temps de ma participation au Conseil de Direction en 1992.

Ce n’est pas un hasard que le compositeur du « Voyage à Reims » où l’on célèbre l’idéal européen ait été celui qui a chanté l’idéal politique et spirituel du Philhellénisme.

 

The French Ambassador in Greece, organizes an event at the French Embassy with the Society for Hellenism and Philhellenism on 13 June 2019 (19.30) on Philhellenism in France and its influence on music and the arts during the War of Independence of 1821.

The event includes two speeches, an exhibition of philhellenic objects related to the subject (paintings, watches, porcelains, documents, books, music scores, theatrical plays, etc.), and a concert of classical music with philhellenic compositions (baritone: Nikos Karagiaouris, piano: Maria Papapetropoulou).