The Finnish Institute at Athens organizes a lecture and round-table discussion on the topic of philhellenism. This is a hybrid event open to the public via zoom.

It is part of Finnish Institute’s project «Other Philhellenisms: Northeastern Perspectives on Slavic and Baltic Philhellenism», which will continue to the year 2022.

The event will take place virtually, on 9 December 2021, at 18.00

Prof. Antonia (Ada) Dialla will give a lecture on “Russian Philhellenism: Inventing Greece, Reinventing Europe”. A panel of specialists in philhellenism and its aspects in the Slavic and Baltic as well as Nordic cultural spheres, in particular, will discuss the lecture, elaborating the themes of philhellenism which have received far less scholarly attention than its role in other parts of Europe and beyond.

The members of the panel are Elizabeth Fowden, George Kalpadakis, Petra Pakkanen and Mogens Pelt.

Please register using the link:  https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZYvc-qqqDIiGNcxTxxTMqJVn800UUiKMqdd

 

Η Εταιρεία για τον Ελληνισμό και Φιλελληνισμό (ΕΕΦ) και το Μουσείο Φιλελληνισμού παρουσιάζουν μία εκδήλωση που οργανώνει η Ελληνοαμερικανική Ένωση και ο Ισπανο-ελληνικός Πολιτιστικός Σύνδεσμος (Asociación Cultural Hispano-Helénica), με στόχο να προβάλει ένα σημαντικό έργο σχετικό με τον Ισπανικό Φιλελληνισμό.

 

The 6th episode of the TV series SKAI “1821: the Heroes”, is broadcasted on Friday, November 5, 2021, at 21.00, and presents the story of two emblematic Philhellenes. The shooting took place at the Philhellenism Museum, which supported the production with the necessary interventions and archival material.

Lord Byron, the romantic English poet inspired by the Greek struggle, and Dr Samuel Howe, the American physician who starred during the revolution, are the two faces of the Greek War of Independence featured in the 6th and final episode of the dramatic documentary series ‘’1821: the Heroes’’. Antonis Karathanassopoulos and Spyros Stamoulis play Lord Byron and Samuel Howe respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SHP and the Philhellenism Museum collaborated for the implementation of the new emblematic production of SKAI, offering material and photographs of the Museum’s exhibits and allocating its spaces for shooting.

One of the episodes refers to two great Philhellenes. The British Lord Byron and the American Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe.

Premiere Friday 1/10/2021 at 21.00

You can watch the trailer of the series here:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o3XkiHE74c0

This is a special TV proposal that will be completed in six episodes, with cinematic vision, well-documented, with high aesthetics and great actors and professionals in front of and behind the cameras. The top event of modern Greek history unfolds through the eyes of the heroes. The emblematic figures of the Greek Revolution, the course of their lives, their participation and contribution to the struggle. Historians-speakers present and analyze the general historical context in the years of the Revolution of 1821 and analyze aspects of the personality of each hero.

The script and direction are signed by Anies Sklavou and Stelios Tatakis and in the leading roles participate in order of appearance Leonidas Kakouris, Argyris Pantazaras, Theofania Papathoma, Errikos Litsis, Ifigenia Karamitrou, Anthropoulos Antonopoulos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This commemorative edition of ELTA honors in September 2021 five emblematic personalities, representative Philhellenes, and through them, the contribution of Philhellenism to the liberation struggle of the Greeks.

You may follow here the official trailer of ELTA.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UqRXf6nxOF8

The five Philhellenes of the special edition are:

The British poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, writes his emblematic work “Hellas” and exclaims “we are all Greeks”. It reminds the civilized world that “our laws, our literature, our religion and our art have their roots in Greece […] without Greece we might still be barbarians […] the human form and the human mind reached perfection in Greece […]”. Shelley and his wife persuaded Lord Byron to go to Greece and identify with the struggle of the Greeks.

The Russian poet Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin, inspired by Lord Byron, was the founder of Russian literature, to whom every Russian writer or poet owes his literary existence. A small sample of his philhellenic feelings towards Greece is his march entitled “Greece”: “… Forward Greece, get up! You do not unjustly nurture hopes, and the ancient mountains, Olympus, Pindos, the Thermopylae, they also shake the shields… “.

The French painter Eugene Delacroix, a leading figure of Romanticism, promotes lyrical Greece with his work. International public opinion discovers through his paintings, a Greece that fights for its freedom while suffering, and deserves moral and material support. Eugene Delacroix inspires dozens of other artists to communicate with their work, the same message throughout Europe, and feeds the philhellenic movement with emotion and passion.

The German officer, Philhellene volunteer in Greece and painter, Karl Krazeisen, promotes with his work the Greek and Philhellenes fighters of the Greek revolution of 1821. He serves the line of the German School of Fine Arts, which promotes epic Greece. A Greece that produces new Marathons and Thermopylae and fighters of the Revolution who are identified with the heroes of Greek mythology and deserve admiration.

The American Philhellene physician Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe, an admirer of Lord Byron, arrived in Greece as a volunteer in 1824, offering his services as a physician and fighter. Then in 1828 he organized a campaign in the USA for the financial support of Greece, and raised huge sums that he distributed to the population, supporting the newly formed Greek state. This great Philhellene and national benefactor of Greece, is evolving into an emblematic humanist and defender of human rights.

Greece rightly honors in the persons of these important personalities the crucial, and unprecedented in international history, contribution of the Philhellenes and Philhellenism to the liberation struggle of the Greeks.

 

 

The Italian Philhellenic Society (Società Filellenica Italiana) organizes an international conference, ‘’Dante e la Grecia’’, in collaboration with organizations and institutions from Greece, Cyprus and Italy. The conference is chaired by Professor Carlo Ossola and a Scientific Committee.

The project ‘’Dante e la Grecia’’ aims to highlight the relevance of Dante Alighieri with the ancient and modern Greek culture.

The conference will take place between 27.09.2021 and 11.11.2021 in Nicosia, Athens, Bari, Salerno and Milan.

You may find below information on the conference :

 

The conference will end on November 20, 2021, at the tomb of Dante in Ravenna with the recitation of the poet’s lyrics in Greek.

You may find information and follow the speeches of the conference using the following addresses:

 

SHP and the Philhellenism Museum, express their deepest sorrow for the loss of the great Philhellene archaeologist Stefanos Miller, to whom the State honorably granted Greek citizenship in 2005. Miller has discovered with his work since the early 1970s, important antiquities in Nemea, he educated many generations of students from all over the world, and deeply loved the culture of ancient and modern Greece.

We pay tribute to a great Philhellene and an emblematic personality.

 

Anton Prokesch von Osten

 

Austrian philhellenism during the 18th and 19th centuries has not been extensively researched so far. It is not widely known, that although the Austrian government took in 1821 a negative stance towards Greek revolutionaries, numerous Austrian Philhellenes supported the Greek cause, and volunteers came to fight in Greece.

During the 18th and 19th centuries Greeks and Austrians coexisted harmoniously in Vienna. Much earlier, in the 17th century, the Greek diplomat Nikolaos Spatharis Milescu had helped the Austrians defend Vienna against the Ottomans, by informing them of the enemy’s war plans. After the peace treaties of Karlovic (1699) and Passarovic (1718), Vienna developed into an important commercial center, where Greeks flocked mainly from Epirus, Macedonia and Thessaly.

Famous Greek benefactors from the Greek community in Vienna supported both Greece and Austria. During the Napoleonic wars, George Sinas, the Greek General Consul in Vienna after 1833, supported the Austrian government financially. Johann Strauss composed his masterpiece Blue Danube in the house of the Greek Nikos Doumbas. Another known fact is that the famous conductor Herbert von Karajan comes from the Greek family Karagiannis. Many streets of the Austrian capital honor the presence of Greeks in the city.

Due to this Greek presence, Vienna was developed into a place of preparation for the Greek war of independence. Greek Enlighteners, such as Rigas Feraios, Theoklitos Farmakidis, Iosipos Moisiodakas or Neophytos Doukas, lived and worked there. In 1815, the later governor of Greece, Ioannis Kapodistrias, along with the Archbishop Ignatios, Anthimos Gazis and Roxandra Stourtza, founded the philhellenic Philomuse Society in Vienna which favoured the uprising of the Greeks.

Metternich´s police closely monitored every publication, thus targeting any reference to revolutions, liberal ideas and the Greek question. Although the government was negative, many Austrians expressed sympathy for the Greeks.

Between 1780 and 1790, Vienna was already the center of the publishing production in the Greek language. Greek and Austrian publishers publish works with a patriotic content. The Austrian publishers Thomas Trattner and Joseph Baumeister publish works by Greek enlighteners.

Joseph Franz Hall, a person who had received a Greek-centered education, was appointed as an official book censor. In parallel, he was publishing two newspapers with philhellenic content: The News in the East, and The Hellenic Telegraph. Because of his philhellenic stance, he was under the risk to see his newspaper closed. Another Austrian Book censor, Bartholomäus Kopitar, tried his best to avoid censoring Greek works with revolutionary messages, by hiding the name of the publisher and the place of publication of some works. Together with the Austrian Hellenist, Franz Karl Alter, they strengthened the interest in the Greek language and the Greek culture in Vienna. In fact, Alter did not hesitate to publish many philhellenic articles in the magazine Allgemeiner Litterarischer Anzeiger (1796-1801).

Apart from philhellenic articles, philhellenic poetry also appeared. For instance, count Anton Alexander von Auersberg, signed an Ode to the death of Ypsilantis under the pseudonym Anastasius Grün. In Berlin, the Austrian-born Moritz Gottlieb Saphir, a satirical author and journalist, published four volumes under the title Griechisches Feuer auf dem Altar edler Frauen […] (1826), in which philhellenic poems by Müller, Stieglitz, Fouqué and others were published for the first time. Christian Freiherr von Zedlitz, who translated Lord Byron´s works, also wrote some philhellenic poetry.

The restless spirits of the time, the European Youth which suffocated in the Europe of the Holy Alliance, people with a liberal mind, and veterans of the Napoleonic wars, were not only moved by the Greek cause, but volunteered to fight in Greece for its Freedom. The Philhellenes came from different countries of Europe. Until recently they have fought against each other on the battlefield; yet now in Greece they allied for a common cause, fighting against a common enemy, under a common flag. The seed for the later birth of a united Europe was planted during these years, in these battlefields.

The Philhellenes often traveled to Greece through Marseille and Livorno, as the ports of Trieste and Venice were under strict control by the police. Despite the negative circumstances, we know the names of fifteen Austrian volunteers who came to fight in Greece.

The first Austrian volunteer who participated in the Greek revolution was Brazky, from Siebenbürgen in Transylvania. He was a retired captain of the Austrian Army, who joined the forces of Alexander Ypsilantes in March 1821.

Three members of the German Legion, Baumgarten from Vienna, Ignaz Schömbach and Miowilowitsch, participated in the famous Battle of Peta in July 1822. Another member of the German Legion, the Viennese J. Schönsel, was also probably there.

Four Austrians died for Greece´s liberation from the Turkish yoke. Count Anton von Pecorara, who fought in Charles Fabvier´s regular Army in Greece, fell heroically at the Battle of Haidari in August 1826. The Austrian Philhellene Geoffroy Resinilt died in Salamina in August 1823. The Viennese Philhellene Friedrich Beo died in Amfissa in September of the same year. Nussbaum, a student of the Austrian Artillery School, died in Tripoli in the summer of 1825.

Other Austrian Philhellenes were more fortunate and survived the war.

For example, the Philhellene Ernst Mangel, who in 1822 or 1824, came with his son, Michael, to Greece. He took part in many battles and was wounded many times. He organized the first Greek military band, to animate Greeks and Philhellenes before the battle. After the end of the revolution he lived in Athens, as his son Michael did, who was even honored with three medals for his outstanding deeds.

Count Ludovici Porro, an aristocrat with a classical education, from Milan (which was under Austrian control at that time), was placed as an officer in Fabvier’s regular army to manage its finances. The Austrian Philhellene Londonio fought in the Greek navy and participated in the campaign of Chios in December 1827. Another three names of Austrian Philhellenes are known, without more information about their actions in Greece: Cornero, Ivanowitsch and Lutek.

The Society for Hellenism and Philhellenism and the Philhellenism Museum have taken the initiative to erect a monument to the Philhellenes in front of the War Museum in Athens, on Vasilissis Sofias Street. The aforementioned names of the Austrian Philhellenes will be engraved on the marble of the monument, along with those of other known Philhellenes.

The Greek revolution was the only one among the revolutions in South Europe that was crowned with success. In fact, it led to the establishment of the modern Greek state. Austria recognized the Greek independence after April 1830, and developed diplomatic relations with the new state. The first Consul of Greece in Vienna was George Sinas in 1833. A year later, the ardent warm Philhellene, Count Anton Prokesch von Osten was appointed First Austrian Ambassador in Greece.

Prokesch von Osten first visited Greece in 1824 in order for him to be close to the revolution. He knew the Greek leaders and King Otto personally. From 1834 to 1849 he remained in Athens as the Ambassador of Austria. Prokesch wrote a six-volume History of the Greek Revolution, based on his experiences as a diplomat. The Society for Hellenism and Philhellenism, the Philhellenism Museum and the Ζωγράφειο School from Epirus, created, on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the Greek revolution, an honorary medal to pay tribute to Prokesch von Osten.

The Austrian – German Philhellene and diplomat, Georg Christian Gropius served as an Austrian Consul in Athens and Nafplio. From 1840 onwards he served as the General Consul of Austria in Athens. He participated in archeological excavations in Aegina and in Vasses Figalia. Like Prokesch, Gropius supported the Greek struggle for independence and was honored by the Greek state with the Greek Order of the Redeemer in gold.

This brief review of certain names indicates that contrary to the official policy of the Austrian empire towards the Greek revolution, several Austrians, military men, diplomats and even simple citizens, joined the Philhellenic movement of their time. The main reason was probably their classical education and admiration of the values of Greece, and their acquaintance with the Greek Expatriates. The liberal spirits of the time associated the Greek case with a “fair and legitimate struggle”. That is why many of them offered their support to Greece.

Austria and Greece are linked by ties of mutual friendship and respect for longer than the 200 years of existence of the modern Greek state. They are based on the common principles and the values of Greek culture and the western world, which go beyond the political choices of any specific historical period.

Thus, the two countries now cooperate side by side as allies and friends, within the framework of a United Europe, which largely owes its existence to the great legacy left by the European Philhellenes.

Professor Nikos Apostolidis, member of the Advisory Committee of SHP, talks about his important ancestor and his contribution to the Greek Revolution.

 

 

The Hungarian government recently erected a monument to Pay tribute to the fallen Hungarian Philhellenes in favor of the struggle for the independence of Greece, in the Municipality of Nikolaos Skoufas (Peta). At the same time, the Hungarian Parliament sent the national flag of the country to the Museum of Philhellenism in Athens.

The history of the two countries is of particular interest and has many coincidences.

Before referring to the Hungarian Philhellenism and its contribution to the Greek Revolution, it is important to recall the roots of the slogan of Alexander Ypsilantis, with which the Greek Revolution began.

FIGHT FOR FAITH AND HOMELAND.

This slogan has deep roots in Hungarian history.

The Hungarian Kingdom, after the beginning of the 16th century, was divided and politically unstable. It included the present-day Romania before its occupation under the Ottomans. In 1514 the revolt of György Dózsa took place in the area of ​​present-day Hungary. He was a Hungarian nobleman from Transylvania, similarly with his many of his haiduks (the haiduks were the “Thieves” of the Northern Balkans), who were mainly farmers and monks or priests. Their main purpose was to defend themselves against the Turks. At the same time, the uprising had social inspirations. In this context, the haiduks farmers were fighting for the first time with the slogan “for the Christian faith and for their country”.

In 1552, during the Turkish occupation of Timisoara in Romania, the leader of a Hungarian military corps led his fighters into a hopeless unequal battle. In order to encourage his warriors, he asked them to fight for a glorious death for their faith and homeland (pro fide, pro patria). The history of this war was written by the contemporary Hungarian Franz von Forgách-Ghymes (1530 – 1577).

In 1605, the Hungarian Haiduks of Transylvania revolted under the leadership of the Hungarian Prince Istvan Bocsksai against the Emperor of Hungary and the Holy Roman Empire, Rudolf II. In a letter, Bocskai explained that the uprising was in defense of the “ancient freedom of the nation and the faith” and that they wanted the progress of their homeland (patria) Transylvania, which they considered “the light of the nation”. The same is explained by two other Hungarian chieftains of the Haiduks in their own letter:

“We rebelled and took up arms for the Christian religion, and for the name of Jesus Christ, our Savior and our sweetest homeland”.

In 1703-1711 the revolt of the Hungarian Francis (Ferenc) Rákóczi II (1676 – 1735) against the Austrians took place. The slogan was “with God for the homeland and freedom”. This uprising resulted in the provisional independence of Hungary and Transylvania. Armed forces from various ethnic groups in the Northern Balkans and Eastern Europe also fought with Rákóczi’s army.

A series of moving historical coincidences link the national hero of Hungary Rákóczi with Alexander Ypsilantis:

(a) The first lived his childhood in the castle of Mugats (today’s Western Ukraine) and later fought for it. Ypsilantis was imprisoned in the same castle and lived there the last years of his life.

(b) They both adopted the same slogan. FIGHT FOR FAITH AND HOMELAND.

(c) Rákóczi left Austria-Hungary after being defeated. In 1717 he went to the Ottoman Empire. The following year Austria and the Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Pasarovic, under which the Austrians asked the sultan to extradite Rákóczi. The sultan refused Austrian’s request. The same happened in reverse, when Ypsilantis went/fled in Austrian territory and under the same treaty, the Turks asked to hand Rákóczi over to them. The incident with the Hungarian revolutionary was the excuse for Austria not to hand over Ypsilantis to the Turks.

Rákóczi is a national hero in Hungary and the great Hungarian composer Franz List composed in his honor the Rákóczi procession, which is the unofficial anthem of Hungary.

The Philhellenism Museum has an important document dated in 1790. It is a letter sent by the French ambassador to Istanbul, Choiseul-Gouffier, in Austria. He had rescued a Hungarian noble officer, de Saint Jvani, from certain death in Turkish prisons, and after he recovered, the French ambassador tried to flee him to Trieste. It is reminded that Choiseul-Gouffier is the Philhellene author of the important work ‘Travel to Greece’ (‘Voyage Pittoresque sur la Grece’) and later, the president of the Greek-language Hotel in Paris. Ιt was the first secret organization for the liberation of Greece.

 

Choiseul-Gouffier, Marie Gabriel Florence Auguste, French ambassador and scholar of ancient Greece (1752-1817). Letter signed. Constantinople, 5. IV. 1790. 2 pp. on bifolium. Folio. To “Monsieur le Comte de Czapari” about Mr. de Saint Jvani whom Choiseul-Gouffier saved from certain death from the Turks’ hands one year earlier. St. Jvani, a Hungarian nobleman and officer, was helping Choiseul-Gouffier to care for the Austrian prisoners and plans to rejoin his comrades in battle.

 

We recognize the common fate and the struggles of the two countries for their freedom.

In 1820, the Hungarian nobleman Szechenyi visited Greece. He  admired the ancient Greek civilization, but also expressed his sorrow for the sufferings of the enslaved Greeks.

And we now come to the Greek Revolution.

The struggle of the Greeks moved the Hungarian people, who had contact with the action of the Greeks in Austria-Hungary, from the work of the Bishop  Ignatius of Hungary, Anthimos Gazis, from the Society of Philomuses in Vienna, Hermes Logios, etc.

From 1821 onwards, many Greek refugees found refuge within Hungarian territory, while in the spring of 1824 Count Laszlo Festetich delivered an enthusiastic speech to the Hungarian Parliament in favor of the Greek cause.

The Paradicsom cafe in Pest was, together with the University of Pest, the fermentation points between Greeks and Hungarians, and the centers of dissemination of Greek positions. The Greek-Hungarian legion was gradually organized there, aiming to sending volunteers to Greece.

Many Hungarian volunteers came to Greece. First they were present in the battle of Peta.

 

Representation of the battle of Peta. Work of Panagiotis Zografou, commissioned by General Makrygiannis (EEF Collection / Museum of Philhellenism).

 

Dobronoki, Emeryk (-1822). Polish Philhellene of Hungarian descent from the town of Dłużniewo (near Płońsk) or Suwałki. He came to Greece in February 1822. He served in the 2nd Corps of the Battalion of Philhellenes as a lieutenant and fell heroically in the battle of Peta on July 4, 1822. He is also incorrectly referred to as “Tabernocky”.

Czernianky, von (of unknown name). Hungarian Philhellene. Physician. He arrived in Greece in July 1822.

Descheffy, Karl von (-1822). Hungarian Philhellene. Also referred to as “Doeschessy” and “Deschettis”. Lieutenant of the Austrian Army during the Napoleonic Wars. Via Livorno, he arrived in February 1822 in Messolonghi. He served as an officer in the Infantry Regiment of the Regular Army. He fell heroically in the battle of Peta on July 4, 1822.

Radice or Radics (name unknown). Hungarian Philhellene. He arrived in Greece via Constantinople. Soldier of the German Legion since April 1822. His participation in the battle of Peta on July 4, 1822 is not testified.

However, many Hungarian Philhellenes also participated in many other phases of the Greek struggle.

Christotulo and Georg (name unknown). They fell heroically during the siege of the Acropolis of Athens on May 6, 1827.

Jeremias, Janos. He participated in the Greek Revolution. At the end of the National Uprising, he settled permanently in Greece. He retired in 1859 as a civil servant of the Greek state.

Kommaromi, Siegmund arrived in Messolonghi at the same time as Lord Byron did. Among the Hungarians who defended Messolonghi in the last siege were two women (only Maria Barotti’s name has survived). These women were injured and imprisoned during the Exodus. Another Hungarian Philhellene, known as Carl, was killed during the Exodus.

Lasso or Lasky, Christoph was a Hungarian volunteer from Budapest. He came to Greece in 1826 and was enlisted in the Regular Army. He fought in the battle of Haidari on August 6, 1826 and took part in the siege of the Acropolis of Athens. He fell heroically in the battle of Analatos on April 24, 1827.

Another Hungarian, Marc (of unknown name), was also killed in this battle.

Especially important is the story of a Hungarian Philhellene who came to Greece with his son.

Mangel or Mankel, Ernst. Hungarian Philhellene from Pest or according to other sources, from Transylvania. He came to Greece in 1822, with his son Michael Ernst Mangel. He participated in many battles and was wounded many times. He took part in the first siege of the Acropolis (as a messenger), in the battle of Dervenakia, in the siege of Nafplio (1822), in the military campaigns of Karystos, Chios, as well as in the battle of Haidari. He organized the first Greek military band that cheered the Greeks and Philhellenes up, before each battle. It has to be emphasized here that the military band was a central element of the operation of the regular army of the time. He was then appointed chief musician in the Greek Army. After the National Uprising he lived in Athens. He had a total of 22 children. Today many of his descendants live in Greece and in other European countries.

Mangel, Michael Ernst (1800-1887). He came to Greece with his father Ernst Mangel. After the Revolution he served as a major in the Greek Army and lived in Athens, where he died in January 1887. He was honored with 3 medals of outstanding deeds (Struggle, Bravery and the medal of the Redeemer). His son was a judge in Thebes in 1881. Today many of his descendants live in Greece.

Moreover, Hungarian artists also honored the struggle of the Greeks. One of them is Adalbert Schaffer. An important painting of his can be found today in the Philhellenism Museum in Athens.

 

Painting by the Hungarian painter Adalbert Schäffer (1815-1871), Greek revolutionary fights in defense of his father, oil painting on canvas (SHP collection / Philhellenism Museum)

 

Of special interest if the work of the Hungarian linguist JÓZSEF ACZÉL, whose studies show the long-term historical relationship of the Hungarian and Greek people.

In 1926 in his book “Szittya-görög eredetünk”, he wrote, among other things:

1) “The Hungarian language has three thousand word roots, which are identical to the Greek ones”.

2) “The ancient Greek texts, the texts of Byzantium and Scythia are identical”.

3) “Some of the words, when written, are surprisingly similar”.

And he continued:

“All over the world, except for the classical ancient languages ​​(Greek and its “child “, Latin), only in Hungarian can poems be written in classical hexameter. This is a unique linguistic phenomenon!

(…) In some of the Hungarian folk songs, the melody is old and comes from the Scythian era (meaning the Thracians of the area)”.

The Society for Hellenism and Philhellenism, and the entire Greek people, thank the people of Hungary for their commitment to the values ​​of Greek culture, and their contribution to the Greek Revolution.

 

Sources – Bibliography:

  • Article by George Argyrakos, “The slogan of Alexandros Ypsilantis”
  • Konstantin Soter Kotsowilis: Die Griechenbegeisterung der Bayern unter König Otto I. München 2007
  • Emanuel Turczynski: Sozial- und Kulturgeschichte Griechenlands im 19. Jahrhundert. Von der Hinwendung zu Europa bis zu den ersten Olympischen Spielen der Neuzeit. Mannheim and Möhnesee 2003