Jean Gabriel Eynard, 19nth century portrait

 

Jean Gabriel Eynard (1775-1863), was a Swiss banker, diplomat and prominent Philhellene, a great supporter of the Greek Revolution, and a benefactor of Greece.

His father was Gabriel-Antoine Eynard, a merchant and banker from the old and powerful noble family of Mont-Eynard, who came from the province of Dauphiné in the South East France[1].

The original branch of the family remained Roman Catholic, while the younger one had joined the Reformation. Gabriel-Antoine Eynard (father of Jean Gabriel Eynard), came from the Calvinist branch of the family, who immediately after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685), had taken refuge in Geneva to maintain his faith. Several members of the family held public office in the city and developed outstanding philanthropic work, while Jean-Gabriel Eynard’s grandfather, Jean-Louis Eynard de Trémolières, was called l’avocat des pauvres (“the lawyer of the poor”)[2].

In 1769, Gabriel-Antoine Eynard moved to Lyon, where he founded a trading company. In 1770, after his first wife Marie-Françoise de Normandie, had died, he married Marie-Madeleine Meuricoffre, the daughter of a merchant from Thurgau, Switzerland, with whom he had three children. The second one was Jean Gabriel Eynard. The young man, who is raised in a strict Calvinist environment, is extremely studious and art-loving. From an early age he learns from his father the economic and commercial processes and he excels professionally.[3].

In 1793 the bloody conflict between the Jacobins and the Girondins takes great proportions. Lyon had joined the monarchical camp, and was besieged by the troops of the French Conventional Assembly. The Eynard family was among the city’s defenders. Gabriel-Antoine Eynard was in fact the elected mayor of Lyon. On October 9, the city was occupied by the rebels[4]. Jean Gabriel Eynard managed to escape to Geneva. On the contrary, his father was arrested, sentenced to death and his property was confiscated. Nevertheless, he finally managed to escape. The whole family settled in the small Swiss town of Rolle, in the canton of Vaud, on the shores of the Geneva lake[5].

Because his paternal estate was destroyed in Lyon, Jean Gabriel Eynard’s father sent him to his half-sister, Lisette Gaulis, who lived in Genoa, to work in her husband’s important trading company[6].

He spent some time there offering his services as an employee, and then he decided to start his own trading business (Eynard Frères et Schmidt), with his brother Jacques and another former employee of Gaulis’ firm[7].

The two brothers boldly and successfully developed a business (trading olive oil, cream and chewing gum), and thus managed to pay off all the previous obligations of the parent’s company[8].

In April – June 1800 the English and Austrians besieged Genoa (Napoleonic wars of subjugation). Jean Gabriel Eynard supported the troops of the French general Andre Massena, participating bravely as a volunteer in the defense of the besieged and starving city, which finally surrendered on June 4, 1800[9].

Eynard moved for some time to Milan, where he met General Horace Francois Bastien Sebastiani de la Porta (1772-1851), later French ambassador to Constantinople[10], where he came in contact with the French staff. He then ended up in Livorno[11].

Eynard became a great merchant in Italy, a powerful banker, a capable manager and a diplomat. Indicatively, we remind that he managed to invest with great success, a loan of 1,450,000 pounds of the Duchy of Etruria, in minerals and iron mines, and in lands of Central Italy[12].

In 1803 he retired from the banking house he had founded with his brother in Genoa and settled in Florence, where he took up public office in parallel with his business and commercial / banking activities. From this operation, he acquired a large fortune and his businesses expanded to Geneva and the commercial cities of Florence and Livorno in Italy[13].

He held high public office for a number of years, which allowed him to reorganize the finances of several Italian states, such as the Duchy of Etruria, the Principalities of Luca and Piombino, the State of Tuscany, and others. In the autumn of 1804 he participated as a member of the Tuscan diplomatic delegation in the ceremonies for the coronation of Napoleon in Paris. A few months later, in Milan, he firmly defended the interests of the duchy (tax reduction) before the emperor and king of Italy Napoleon[14].

In 1807 he became central collector of taxes in the principalities of Luca and Piombino, ruled by Felix Bacciochi and his wife Eliza Bonaparte, Napoleon’s sister.

In 1808 he became a Swiss citizen and citizen of Rolle. He returned to Paris next year as a member of the Tuscan delegation to thank Napoleon for the appointment of his sister Eliza to the Tuscan throne. In addition to his political duties, he spent time in Paris studying chemistry with Baron Thénard[15].

In 1814 – 15 Geneva was admitted to the Swiss Federation. Eynard organized and supplied at his expenses, the cavalry of the National Guard, of which he was appointed lieutenant colonel, with the mission of protecting the independence of the region from the aspirations of the French. He was a member of the Geneva High Council and secretary of the delegation to the “Treaties of Paris” and the Congress of Vienna, together with his uncle, through his wife Anna Eynard Lullin Charles Pictet de Rochemont (1755-1824) and Francois d’lvernois[16].

In these international meetings they tried to ensure the recognition of Geneva’s annexation to the Swiss Federation, as well as the neutrality of Switzerland[17].

Ioannis Kapodistrias, a special envoy of the Russian emperor Alexander I, consistently supported their demands in the broader context of the Russian politics and became their close friend. At the Vienna Congress, Eynard was accompanied by his wife. The couple was acquainted with most of the powerful rulers, great politicians and diplomats of the time. Their meeting with Ioannis Kapodistrias resulted in a warm, sincere and long-term friendship. The friendship of the two men was Eynard’s first substantial contact with the affairs of the Greeks. The leading Corfiot diplomat and politician, informed the French-Swiss banker about the sufferings of the Greeks enslaved by the Turks[18]. At the Congress of Vienna, the four “Great Powers” concluded the “European Agreement”, known as the Holy Alliance, against all the revolutionary and liberation movements of their time. This created a negative climate, mainly on the Austrian side, inspired by Chancellor Metternich, and for the Greek cause[19].

Between 1817 and 1821, Eynard built his family mansion in Geneva, on the Promenades des Bastions, based on designs by the Italian architect G. Salucci and the decisive contribution of himself and his wife. The building followed a Florentine – neoclassical style, and it was the most beautiful of that time in the city. This building was renovated later and became the City Hall[20]. The emblematic house of Eynard became the “headquarters” of European philhellenism and a centre of culture, a few years later. Eynard developed in parallel a rich social and intellectual activity; he was a pioneer or active member in various literary and artistic societies of Geneva, such as the Société de Lecture, Société des Arts, Société d’Histoire et d’ Archéologie, the Utilité Publique, he supported charitable initiatives, took care of the beautification of the city[21] etc. A few years later he acquired luxury residences in Florence, Rome and Paris. At the same time he continued his political activity. So in 1816 he undertook to restore the public finances of the State of Tuscany. In the autumn of 1818 he represented the Grand Duke of Tuscany Ferdinand at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle. He remained in his court as a counselor until 1821. For his contribution he was honored as early as 1818 with the title of nobleman of Florence and knight of St. Joseph[22].

After the outbreak of the Greek Revolution in the Danube Hegemonies and in Greece in 1821, Eynard was one of the first Europeans to become increasingly involved in the movement to support the revolted Greeks.

Jean Gabriel Eynard, lithography 19th    century (SHP collection)

In August 1821 he founded, together with Favre-Bertrand, Et.-L. Dumont, J.C.L. de Sismondi, Bellot, and others, the first philhellenic committee in Geneva, which was quickly recognized by the committees of other Swiss cities as the coordinating authority. Eynard became immediately the organizer, the soul and the pillar of all the philhellenic committees of Europe (Geneva, Paris, Bern, Zurich, Lausanne, Berlin, Munich, Dresden, etc.). The Philhellenic Committees helped with fundraising, public events and the enlightment of the public opinion, the Greek Struggle for Liberation[23].

At the beginning of the Greek Revolution, the Phanariote princes Ioannis Karatzas, Alexandros Mavrokordatos and Michael Soutzos, were hosted at his house and became Eynard’s friends. From the autumn of 1822 he started working closely with Ioannis Kapodistrias, who, after resigning from his duties in the Czar’s Court, lived permanently in Geneva and worked for the Greek Struggle[24].

Letter of 1825, sent by Eynard to the French historian and Philhellene Jean-Alexandre Buchon (1791-1849), author of the famous work “Chronique de la Morée” (SHP collection)

In the coming years, Eynard will become the brave sponsor of the Greek Struggle. He will facilitate and finance the transportation to Greece of foreign volunteers, of food, ammunition and money for the struggling Greeks. Being a prominent economic and political figure, he had the opportunity to promote the Greek cause to foreign European courts and governments, to diplomats and personalities from his social environment, in international meetings and conferences. His vast correspondence, travels and contacts have the sole aim of restoring Greece, which he never succeeded to visit in his life. His correspondence with the Greek chieftains and politicians, protagonists of the Revolution, is also remarkable[25]. He rightly acquired the title of “Rector of the Greeks” and “Friend of the Greeks”[26].

Medal in the honour of J. G. Eynard bearing the title “L’ami des grecs” (SHP collection)

During the period 1825-1827, after the landing of the Egyptian troops of Ibrahim Pasha in the Peloponnese and the siege of Messolonghi, when the Struggle entered a critical phase, Eynard worked intensively in Paris for four months for the formation of the Philhellenic Committee and the delivery of financial assistance to Greece. He also tried to secure a loan with favorable terms, which would be managed by the Philhellenic Committee of Paris. Finally the Greek representatives preferred to conclude the well-known loans in London[27].

In September 1825, thanks to the actions of Eynard, the Philhellenic committee of Geneva collected 55,000 – 60,000 francs for the Greeks. He supplied another 40,000 francs to the two envoys Fr. Marcet and W. Romilly, of the Paris and Geneva Committees respectively, for food and ammunition to be sent to Greece the following year. When Eynard was informed of the siege of Messolonghi he was shocked. Especially because he had experienced the same gloomy situation twice in his life. He immediately sent as his own contribution 12,000-15,000 francs for wheat, and secured another 60,000 francs from the French Philhellenes. These sums were sent via Zakynthos to Greece, to the battlefields and to Messolonghi[28]. At the same time, he addressed an emblematic message “to the glorious military leaders of the brave Messolonghi and to its brave guard”.

His passion was such that he and his wife went to Ancona to personally oversee and manage the loading of ships with supplies for the city of martyrdom (Messolonghi), which in the meantime had succumbed to Ibrahim’s hordes.

Suzanne Elisabeth Eynard (1775-1844), the destruction of the island of Psara by the Turks. Painting of Eynard’s bride, wife of Eynard’s brother, Jaques (SHP collection).

The sacrifice of Messolonghi convinced Eynard that a more effective coordination of the relief effort was needed. It is worth noting how much he was moved by the capture of the Greeks and their sale in slave markets in the Mediterranean. He immediately sent 51,000 francs to buy back the freedom of the enslaved Greek women and children. At the same time, he appointed G. Papamanolis in Kythira and T. T. Petrini in Nafplio as his representatives. He also sent his compatriot Swiss doctor and Philhellene, Louis-André Gosse to Greece to optimize the management of the aid[29].

“LE COURRIER FRANCAIS”, April 28, 1826. Newspaper, number 118. It contains one of the first written references on the events of the Greek revolution and more specifically it quotes correspondence saved by Eynard and comments the events and movements of the neighboring areas in in relation to the third siege of Messolonghi (SHP collection).

His insight leads him to important interventions with an impact also on the military aspects of the Greek struggle. His assessment was that Greece had to maintain its sovereignty over the sea. A domination that it had begun to lose. Thus he mediated for Admiral Cochrane[30] to be sent to Greece. At the time, Cochrane was the most famous international admiral. It was a military and political instrument, whose name alone was enough to terrorize the enemy. When it was announced that Admiral Cochrane was finally going to Greece, the interest rate of the Greek loan was immediately reduced by 15%. His arrival in Greece was for months the key topic of discussion in Greece and Turkey.

In the same context, Eynard contributed 150,000 francs to cover the costs for the shipbuilding and equipment of Karteria, the first steam-powered warship to take part in military operations in naval history[31].

From the fall of Messolonghi until the first days of 1827, the Swiss, German and French Philhellenic Committees sent to Greece, under the coordination of Eynard, food of a total weight of 7.4 million pounds. Moreover, only in 1827, Eynard sent to Greece over 800,000 francs from fundraisers. In a report that he presented at the end of 1827, he stated that only the weekly fundraiser of 1826 alone, contributed in total more than 2.5 million francs for the Greeks. Without official diplomatic status, but relying on his great international prestige, he successfully handled the great Greek diplomatic problems of the period 1827-1832, significantly influencing the decisions of London in July 1827 and Paris in 1829-30. In May 1827, the Third National Assembly in Troizina awarded honorably to him the Greek citizenship “by naturalizing him as a true Greek and a citizen of Greece”[32].

Fabvier’s letter of recommendation to Eynard asking him to assist a Greek studying in Pisa and Paris. “Sir, the young Vassilios Anagnostis Papamanolis from Hydra, after studying in Pisa, will be in Paris for your exams. Knowing both your philanthropic work and the deep interest you show in this nation, I take the courage to warmly recommend this young man to you at critical moments. The people of Hydra wake up (awaken) and show a growing determination towards the danger of their homeland. I commit to this young person with this simple letter. The high esteem you enjoy in Europe and the generous warmth that characterizes you will do more for the subject than I could have hoped for myself. I convey to you, sir, the confirmation of the unlimited devotion with which I have the honor to deal with you. Colonel Fabvier. Hydra, on the 4th of November 1826″ (SHP collection).

In the period between 1827 and 1831, when Ioannis Kapodistrias was appointed Governor of Greece, he found in his person the wise advisor and the constant supporter in any financial difficulty faced by the newly formed Greek State. Greece owes Eynard multifold financial support, funds for the agricultural development and the establishment of the agricultural school of Tiryns, the sending of seeds, potatoes, tools, medicines, his contribution for the reconstruction of villages, the organization of the national education and the army, the creation of the National Financial Bank (for which it sent a total of 100,000 francs), the granting of state loans that had been refused to Greece by the Powers[33], etc.

Two letters of 1828, by I. Kapodistrias to J. G. Eynard. The two letters were written at a particularly critical time for the fate of the newly established Greek state and this is reflected in their content. 1828 was a difficult and decisive year for the successful outcome of the Revolution. Kapodistrias had already returned to Greece in January to take over the government and organize a state on ruins. In addition to the most serious financial difficulties, there was a danger that the Revolution would be stifled by the presence of Ibrahim in the Peloponnese. The French expedition to the Peloponnese at the end of August forced Ibrahim to leave. In the conference of Poros that followed, with the presence of the ambassadors of the great powers, Kapodistrias tried to achieve the most favorable demarcation of the borders of the modern Greek state.

Of particular note is the loan of 1,500,000 francs in 1829, which was used to pay the army and to combat robbery. In 1828, Eynard was forced to go to the Pyrenees because of his wife’s health. He assigned Michael Soutzos in Paris to replace him, who was then appointed on the recommendation of Eynard, ambassador to Paris[34]. In 1830, although Eynard was close to French politics, he supported the candidacy for the Greek throne of the Prince of Saxe-Cobourg-Gotha Leopold[35]. In the same year, the city of Thebes gave his name to its largest square, while in 1837 the city council decided to erect a monument in the square, “in honor of this gentle man and benefactor of the homeland”.

The assassination of the Greek Governor caused a crash to his beloved Swiss friend, who had even prepared a small house for him in Beaulieu, to spend the last years of his life quietly. To honour Ioannis Kapodistrias, to defend his memory from unfavorable comments of Greeks and foreigners, but also to protect the reputation of Greece, he published in Paris a collection of public and private documents on the sad events of 1831 entitled ”Official letters and documents related to the last events of Greece; which preceded and followed the death of the count Capodistrias, up to October 31, 1831”[36].

CAPODISTRIAS]. ”Official letters and documents related to the last events of Greece; which preceded and followed the death of the count Capodistrias, up to October 31, 1831”. Paris, Firmin Didot Frères, 1831; in-8, paperback. First edition, published by several members of the former Greek committee of Paris: André, Duc de Broglie, Cottier, Vicomte de Chateaubriand, Duc de Choiseul, duc de Dalberg, comte Alexandre de Laborde, Benjamin Delessert, Ambroise Firmin-Didot, Comte Eugène d’Harcourt, Mahul, Baron Ternaux, Villemain. Label stuck under the title, on the first cover cover: “We kindly ask your peers and deputies to read this brochure, especially as of page 293, and particularly the last three pages of the volume” (SHP collection).

During the years 1831-1836 Eynard arranged to send the experienced French economist Arthémond de Regny, his close friend, to Greece, with a mission to organize the country’s public finances. De Regny was appointed “General Supervisor of the Kingdom’s finances”, and in 1834 he founded (and became its first president), the Court of Auditors. In 1838 he took over as general curator of financial management[37]. De Regny’s acquaintance at the Court of Auditors with Georgios Stavros and the friendship of the two men led a little later to the establishment of the National Bank.

Greece awarded Eynard in 1837 with the Royal Decree of 17.7.1837, the Grand Cross of the Knights of the Order of the Redeemer. At the same time, Eynard was honoured by the French government with the Legion of Honor[38].

From 1837 to 1840, Eynard participated in various attempts to establish a bank in the modern Greek state, either alone or with the English house Wright and later with Dutch investors. Unfortunately, these attempts were unsuccessful. In the meantime, already in 1838, Eynard lent 300,000 francs to de Regny and Georgios Stavros, with the aim of buying commercial bills in the Athenian market with 8% interest, in order to combat usury. This initiative was successful and it led to a drastic reduction of the claims of the usurers[39].

His philhellenic feelings and sincere interest never stopped. Thus, in 1841 Eynard proclaims a “new alarm of the Philhellenes”, and undertakes efforts to help the Cretan Revolution of 1841, to liberate Crete and to unite with Greece. However, he did not manage to send aid, because the revolution was quickly suppressed. He also intervened for the release of Christian prisoners in Algeria during the Franco-Algerian conflict of 1839-1841[40].

The contribution of this great man culminates with his decisive suppot for the establishment of the National Bank of Greece (NBG) in March 1841.

Letter from George Stavros to J. G. Eynard. The opposition to king Othon’s rule and the bankruptcy of the Greek state in 1843, led to the military uprising of September 3, 1843. Military units were sent to occupy buildings vital to the functioning of the state, including the building of the National Bank of Greece. The letter presents the atmosphere of the shocking events of the time. This is a confidential letter, dated “Athens, December 14/26, 1843”. G. Stavros analyzes in detail the new political situation, the people who make up the new cabinet (Palamidis, Mansolas, Melas, etc.) and the conflicts between them. He refers to Mavrokordatos and Kolettis and gives the impression of a robust manager who manages effectively the affairs of the bank in the rapidly evolving political scene (SHP collection).

Eynard supported George Stavros for the position of director of the Bank. Jean Gabriel Eynard and Nikolaos Zosimas were declared “honorary directors” of NBG by the preliminary assembly of shareholders on November 13, 1841[41].

In 1842 the Educational Society elected him honorary president. In 1843, a year of economic crisis in Greece, Eynard tried to persuade foreign powers to lend the country again. When the Greek government closed its embassies, Eynard again offered to take over the diplomatic representation of Greece abroad. During this same period, he also mediated in settling the claims of various of his compatriots – investors, against the Russian state and Czar Nicholas I awarded him the Cross of the Order of St. Anne[42].

At the same time, during this period, he continued to be a pioneer in culture. Eynard was the first to promote the art of daguerreotype, becoming an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences in Paris[43].

Jean Gabriel Eynard (1850s). Daguerreotype. Archive of the Hellenic-Swiss Association “Jean Gabriel Eynard”, Geneva.

In 1847 Eynard facilitated the Greek government by granting it a loan of 500,000 francs, in order to meet its obligation to pay the semester’s installment of the national loan of 1832 of 60,000,000 francs. From 1848 onwards he was isolated from social life, devoting more and more time to religion and to the study of Christian texts. In addition, he was suffering from health problems[44].

After the end of the Crimean War (1856) king Othon appealed to him, asking him to use his prestige to mediate at the Peace Conference in Paris, for favorable solutions in favor of Greece[45].

King Othon himself visited him in 1862 in Beaulieu, to personally convey to him the love and gratitude of the Greek people and to hand over to him the highest Greek medal, the Grand Cross of the Redeemer, which had already been awarded to him in 1837.

Jean Gabriel Eynard, this great Philhellene, national benefactor of Greece and noble pioneer of culture, passed away on February 5, 1863 in Geneva.

SHP, Greece and the Greeks will forever honour the memory of this remarkable noble Philhellene, who selflessly and generously, offered until his last breath, contributing decisively, both for the success of the Independence of Greece and the economic and social organization of the young state, as well as for the evolution of culture.

 

References

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[2]  Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[3] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[4] Chapuisat, Edouard, ‘’Jean-Gabriel Eynard et son temps : 1775-1863’’, εκδ. A. Jullien, Γενεύη, 1952, σελ.14.

[5] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα,1999, σελ. 13.

[6] Monod, Roger, ‘’Famille Eynard”, εκδ. Archives de la Ville de Genève, Γενεύη, 1982, σελ. 35.

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[8] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα,1999, σελ.13.

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[10] Driault, Edouard, ‘’Etudes napoleoniennes’’, εκδ. F. Alcan, Παρίσι, 1904, σελ. 101.

[11] Bouvier-Bron, Michelle, ’’Une jeunesse en Italie. Les années de formation de Jean Gabriel Eynard’’, εκδ. Slatkine, Γενεύη, 2019, σελ. 179.

[12]  Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[13]  Συλλογή Diodati – Eynard 1685-1904, Βιβλιοθήκη της Γενεύης, φάκελος 15, έγγραφο υπ’ αριθμ.64.

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[15] Chapuisat, Edouard, ‘’Jean-Gabriel Eynard et son temps : 1775-1863’’, εκδ. A. Jullien, Γενεύη, 1952, σελ. 38.

[16]  Chapuisat, Edouard, ‘’ Journal de Jean-Gabriel Eynard publié avec une introduction et des notes’’, εκδ. Plon Nouritt, Γενεύη, 1924,   α’ τόμος.

[17] Καποδίστριας, Ιωάννης, ‘’Αυτοβιογραφία Ιωάννου Καποδίστρια’’, επιμ. Μ. Λάσκαρις, εκδ. Γαλαξίας, Αθήνα,1968, σελ. 35-36.

[18] Woodhouse, Christopher Montague, ‘’Capodistria. The founder of Greek Independence’’, εκδ. Oxford University Press, Λονδίνο, 1973, σελ. 82.

[19] Grimsted Kennedy, Patricia,’’Capodistrias and a ‘’new order’’ for restoration Europe: the ‘’liberal ideas’’ of a Russian Foreign Minister, 1814-1822’’, περ. ‘’The Journal of Modern History’’, Σικάγο, 1968, τεύχος 40, σελ. 166-172.

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[21] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

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[23]  Rouiller, Jean-Luc, ‘’La bibliothèque de La Grange’’, εκδ. La Baconnière : Bibliothèque de Genève, Γενεύη, 2011, σελ 11.

[24] Crawley, C.V., ’’John Capodistrias: Some Unpublished Documents’’, εκδ. Αριστοτελείου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης, Θεσσαλονίκη,1970,σελ.56.

[25] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα,1999, σελ.17.

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[27] Βλ. στο ίδιο,σελ.19.

[28] ‘’Ατομικός Φάκελος ναυάρχου Ανδρέα Μιαούλη’’, Ιστορικό Αρχείο Μουσείο Ύδρας, Ύδρα, γ’ τετράδιο, σελ. 156-160.

[29] St Clair, William, ‘’ That Greece Might Still Be Free.The Philhellenes in the War of Independence’’, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ. 335.

[30] Τρικούπης, Σπυρίδων, ‘’Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Επαναστάσεως’’, εκδ. Βουλή των Ελλήνων, Αθήνα, 2007, δ’ τόμος, σελ.118.

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[32] Monod, Roger, ‘’Famille Eynard‘’, εκδ. Archives de la Ville de Genève, Γενεύη, 1982, σελ.290.

[33] Καποδίστριας, Ιωάννης, ‘’Επιστολαί διπλωματικαί, διοικητικαί και ιδιωτικαί, γραφείσαι από 8 Απριλίου 1827 μέχρι 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 1831’’, εκδ. Κωνσταντίνου Ράλλη, Αθήνα, 1841, γ’ τόμος, σελ. 285-288.

[34] Πρεβελάκης, Ελ.- Γλύτσης, Φ., ‘’Επιτομαί εγγράφων του Βρεταννικού Υπουργείου Εξωτερικών, Γενική Αλληλογραφία/Ελλάς’’, εκδ. Ακαδημία Αθηνών, Αθήνα, 1975, δ’ τόμος, σελ. 68-69.

[35] Καποδίστριας, Ιωάννης, ‘’ Επιστολαί διπλωματικαί, διοικητικαί και ιδιωτικαί, γραφείσαι από 8 Απριλίου 1827 μέχρι 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 1831’’, εκδ. Κωνσταντίνου Ράλλη, Αθήνα, 1841, γ’ τόμος, σελ. 379-380.

[36] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα, 1999, σελ. 20.

[37] Βακαλόπουλος, Κωνσταντίνος, “L’ économiste français Arthémond de Regny et son rôle dans l’histoire financière de la Grèce (1831-1841)”, εκδ. Αριστοτελείου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης, Θεσσαλονίκη, 1977.

[38] ‘’Diplôme et distinctions en faveur de Jean-Gabriel Eynard 1834-1854 (en français et en grec)’’, Συλλογή Diodati – Eynard 1685-1904, Βιβλιοθήκη της Γενεύης, φάκελος 15, έγγραφο υπ’ αριθμ. 77.

[39] ‘’Αρχείο Αλεξάνδρου Μαυροκορδάτου’’, Γενικά Αρχεία του Κράτους, Αθήνα, φακ.21, έγγρ. υπ’αριθμ.5891.

[40] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα, 1999, σελ.21.

[41] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[42] Βλ. στο ίδιο, σελ. 22.

[43] ‘’Eynard Daguerreotypes’’, J. Paul Getty Museum, Νέα Υόρκη.

[44] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς, Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα, 1999, σελ.22.

[45] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

 

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