The Swiss Philhellene Amadeus Emmanuel Hahn (SHP collection)

 

Amadeus Emmanuel Hahn (1801-1867), was a Swiss officer and one of the most distinguished Philhellenes, both during the Greek Revolution of 1821 and later during the first years of the existence of the new Greek state.

He served as an officer in the Swiss Army, from 1818 to 1823[1]. At the same time, he was one of the first to join the Philhellenic Committee of Bern[2]. A little later, this Committee instructed him in 1825 to go to Greece[3]. When he arrived, he enlisted in the Corps of Philhellenes and undertook soon action. Among other things, he undertook to inspire and support many young Philhellenes who were suffering, and distinguished himself for saving the lives of many of his comrades, who had even attempted suicide. One of the reasons was the malaria epidemic that had broken out in Corinth and which, due to the lack of medical means, was impossible to deal with[4].

Amadeus Emmanuel Hahn, took part in the 2nd battle of Tripolitsa and in the battle of Oropos in 1825[5]. A little later, he took part in the siege of the Acropolis in 1826. He was part of the Corps of 500 Greeks and Philhellenes who broke the lines of the Turkish besiegers, and entered the Acropolis under the French Philhellene General Charles Fabvier, bringing food and ammunition to the besieged Greeks.

He remained in the Acropolis for 6 months, period during which he experienced the complete impoverishment of the besieged Greeks, due to the lack of food and ammunition[6]. Then, he fought in the battle of Analatos on April 24, 1827 (from where he fled ill to Poros after the defeat of the Greeks, in order to recover[7]), and later in the battles of Oropos and Thebes, while finally, he took part in the campaign of Chios under the orders of the Philhellene General Charles Fabvier, in 1828[8].

At the same time he wrote the book “Brief des Philhellenen Em. Hahn aus Griechenland”, through which he informed the public opinion of his country about the situation prevailing in Greece[9].

After the foundation of the new Greek state in 1830, Hahn continued to offer his services in Greece. In fact, at the same time he reconnected with his old friend and later landowner in Evia, Edward Noel, nephew of Lord Byron[10].

In 1833 he served as a commander of the garrison in Patras[11].

In 1837 he was promoted to Captain of the Infantry[12] and was appointed commander of the 4th Battalion of the Greek Army[13].

In 1843 he served as a military commander of Pylos (then Navarino), while in 1844 the state promoted him to the grade of Colonel, to honour him for the services he had offered to the Struggle[14].

In 1845, for health reasons, he took sick leave and visited for a while his homeland, Switzerland[15].

At October 27th, 1845, he married in Athens the Prussian Baroness Maria Des Granges (1826-1849), who died in July of 1849, because of complexions in her pregnancy[16]. Her tomb is located in the 1st Cemetery of Athens.

In 1854, he chaired the committee of the Ministry of the Army, which was responsible for drafting the army’s regulations, while in 1855, he was promoted to the aid de camp of the Greek king Othon[17].

In 1857 he was promoted to major general, while in 1860 he was appointed Inspector of the Infantry[18].

Due to health problems, Amadeus Emmanuel Hahn, resigned from the Greek Army in 1865, holding the rank of lieutenant general. He returned to Bern, where he died on June 22, 1867[19].

SHP honours the memory of Amadeus Emmanuel Hahn, an important Philhellene, who fought for the Independence of Greece and the organization of the new Greek state, which he served with important positions of responsibility.

 

References

[1] ‘’Μεγάλη Στρατιωτική και Ναυτική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια’’, εκδ. Μεγάλης Στρατιωτικής και Ναυτικής Εγκυκλοπαίδειας, Αθήνα, 1930, 6ος τόμος, σελ.565.
[2] Hahn, Amadeus Emmanuel, ‘’Memoiren über seine Beteiligung am griechischen Freiheitskampf’’, εκδ. Berner Taschenbuch, Βέρνη, 1870.
[3] ‘’Μεγάλη Στρατιωτική και Ναυτική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια’’, εκδ. Μεγάλης Στρατιωτικής και Ναυτικής Εγκυκλοπαίδειας, Αθήνα, 1930, 6ος τόμος, σελ.565.
[4] St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ. 161.
[5] ”Μεγάλη Στρατιωτική και Ναυτική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια”, εκδ. Μεγάλης Στρατιωτικής και Ναυτικής Εγκυκλοπαίδειας, Αθήνα, 1930, 6ος τόμος, σελ.565.
[6] Reber, Karl, “Emanuel Amenaeus Hahn- ein verkannter Schweizer Philhellene“, εκδ. περ. Hellas Freunde, Βέρνη, Ιανουάριος 2009, σελ.12.
[7] Hahn, Amadeus Emmanuel, ”Memoiren über seine Beteiligung am griechischen Freiheitskampf“, εκδ. Berner Taschenbuch, Βέρνη, 1870.
[8] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[9] St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ. 362.
[10] Reber, Karl, ‘’Emanuel Amenaeus Hahn- ein verkannter Schweizer Philhellene’’, εκδ. περ. Hellas Freunde, Βέρνη, Ιανουάριος 2009, σελ.12
[11] Reber, Karl, ‘’Emanuel Amenaeus Hahn- ein verkannter Schweizer Philhellene’’, εκδ. περ. Hellas Freunde, Βέρνη, Ιανουάριος 2009, σελ.13
[12] ‘’ Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως του Βασιλείου της Ελλάδος’’, Αθήνα, 30 Μαΐου 1837, Φ.Ε.Κ. υπ’ αριθμ. 20, σελ.88.
[13] Reber, Karl, ‘’Emanuel Amenaeus Hahn- ein verkannter Schweizer Philhellene’’, εκδ. περ. Hellas Freunde, Βέρνη, Ιανουάριος 2009, σελ.13
[14] Βλ. στο ίδιο
[15] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[16] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[17] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[18]”Μεγάλη Στρατιωτική και Ναυτική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια”, εκδ. Μεγάλης Στρατιωτικής και Ναυτικής Εγκυκλοπαίδειας, Αθήνα, 1930, 6ος τόμος, σελ.565.
[19] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

 

Bibliography – Sources

  • ”Μεγάλη Στρατιωτική και Ναυτική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια”, εκδ. Μεγάλης Στρατιωτικής και Ναυτικής Εγκυκλοπαίδειας, Αθήνα, 1930, 6ος τόμος.
  • Hahn, Amadeus Emmanuel, “Memoiren über seine Beteiligung am griechischen Freiheitskampf“, εκδ. Berner Taschenbuch, Βέρνη, 1870.
  • St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008.
  • “Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως του Βασιλείου της Ελλάδος”, Αθήνα, 30 Μαΐου 1837, Φ.Ε.Κ. υπ’ αριθμ. 20.
  • Reber, Karl, “Emanuel Amenaeus Hahn- ein verkannter Schweizer Philhellene“, εκδ. περ. Ηellas Freunde, Βέρνη, Ιανουάριος 2009.

 

Military from Corsica of the period 1800 – 1817

 

Gambini Pasquale was a brave Philhellene who died heroically during a battle in the area of ​​Athens. He originated from the city of Corte in Corsica, from a large family of distinguished soldiers.

The Greek bibliography refers often to him as “Gampini Paskouale” in Greek letters. The “Great Greek Encyclopedia” states that he arrived in Greece with the Italian Philhellene Joseph Abbati and other compatriots at the beginning of the war of independence. However, this view does not seem to be correct, as his presence is mentioned in the sources much later.

Initially, William St Clair in his work “That Greece might still be free”, ranks Gambini among about a dozen Italian revolutionaries who were sentenced to death in their homeland, in absentia, for their participation in the revolutionary movements of 1821 and for their political beliefs. This list comprised Collegno, Rosarol, Santa Rosa, Palma, Romei, Barandier, and others.

In addition, sketching Gambini’s life before he appeared in Greece, Vergé – Franceschi Michel, calls Gambini “the Red”. That is, the revolutionary. The author mentions that Gambini was associated to the Corsican revolutionary-thief, Gallocchio, and that he then fled to Greece where he took part in the liberation struggle of the Greeks, fighting against the Turks.

More information about Gambini and Gallocchio is provided by Silvani Paul. According to the international bibliography, but mainly the “History of the island of Corsica”, it appears that “Pascal Gambini” (as mentioned), came to Greece with another of his compatriots and Philhellene, Gallocchio. It seems that the latter served as “captain in Morea”. It is reported that at some point he returned for personal and family reasons in Corsica, where he was murdered.

Peasants from Corsica in the early 19th century

Elie Papadacci refers to “the revolutionary-thieves Gallocchio and Pascal Gambini, who enlisted in the Greek forces“. It places their action in Greece only in the year 1826, a fact that has also not been verified. What is certain is that their presence is documented after 1824, as in 1823 Pascal Gambini appears to be the author and signatory of a revolutionary proclamation in Corsica. The proclamation is published by Valérie Sottocasa in a study.

From all the above sources, it appears that Gambini remained in Greece for a relatively short period, from 1824 or 1826 at the latest, until 1827.

In addition, the archives of Lord Gordon kept at the University of Aberdeen, comprise a letter from Gambini and other Philhellenes addressed to Gordon. The Philhellenes inform him that they were satisfying his wish and arrived in Ambelaki, a city in the Peloponnese, in the hope that they will be able to become useful to Colonel Fabvier, commander of the Greek Regular Army. The letter is dated March 12, 1827. One could therefore speculate that Gambini may have come to Greece at the urging and acquaintance of Lord Gordon. However, there is no further evidence to support this version.

In any case, the most reliable source about this Philhellene remains, as it is often the case, the biographer of the Philhellenes, Henri Fornèsy. According to his testimony, Gambini died after being first tortured by the Turks in Patissia, Athens, on May 6, 1827. Herni Fornèsy writes in his notes on Gambini exactly the following:

The most worthy, given his bravery, to carry with honor the flag of the Philhellenes in Faliro, where he was taken prisoner. He served in the Company of the Philhellenes, which the Greek warriors called “Paschalis’ Company”. His death was the death of a hero, and here are the key details. After the Turks took him prisoner, further to the catastrophic defeat at the Three Towers or Cape Kollia, and after he had tried with fearless courage to defend himself alone against numerous enemy cavalry, they led him before Reshit Pasha to Athens, in his camp. Due to his tall stature, the Turks took him for Lord Cochrane, a mistake that could have saved his life. But the brave Corsican warrior refused to consent to such a scam. A martyr’s, but glorious, death was in his soul more preferable than maintaining his existence by redeeming it based on a lie. Among the many prisoners who fell to the Turks that same day, was the young leader, Dimitrios Kallergis. Pasha brought Gambini before him in order to verify his identity and real name. Since there was no longer any doubt, after Kallergis’ assurance, he decided to execute Gambini, whose head would go to find those of so many of his other comrades-in-arms. Gambini, until the last moment of his life, became the object of admiration and heroism, cursing the tyrannical Turks and encouraging the Greeks who suffered the same fate as him, to endure their death with courage, and with the certainty that their “brothers” comrades-in-arms, would not delay to avenge their enemies for their loss“.

Similar information about Gambini and his heroic death is also reported by Michelle Averoff in her article on the Philhellenes, as well as in Babis Anninos relevant study in “Historical Notes”.

Much information about Gambini Pasquale is also provided by Thomas Douglas Whitcombe, in his “Campaign of the Falieri and Piraeus in the Year 1827”. Whitcombe calls Gambini by his first name “Pasqual”, and states that this warrior had the good reputation that he was very courageous and that he had bravely defended the flag of the Philhellenes. He describes with eloquence his brave participation in the battle of Faliro, and in addition, he confirms the circumstances of his death. Douglas Whitcombe makes special mention of the Turks’ attempt to capture Gambini alive, as they had the impression that he was Lord Cochrane, as Fornèsy notes. He refers to the courage he showed before his conviction, to his struggle with the Turks whom he did not fear and faced fearlessly even at the last moment of his life, as well as to his last wish and effort to give courage to his captive comrades. What is striking is that the author clarifies that Gambini, despite the momentum of his action, had polite manners and was especially dear to his comrades-in-arms.

The defeat at Faliro, where 1,500 Greeks and Philhellene warriors were killed, was one of the greatest catastrophes in the history of the Greek war for Independence. This defeat was a result of the inability of the Regular Corps and the Philhellenes to cooperate with the other forces of irregular Greek fighters under a single command. In this battle, out of the 26 Philhellenes who fought, only 4 survived. In addition, the Greek literature identifies the number of prisoners at around 240 in total, while Douglas Whitcombe states that they amounted to around 300.

Gambini’s heroic death is finally also mentioned in Italian literature, as he was a Corsican. Specifically, he is referred in works dedicated to the Italian warriors who lost their lives fighting away from their homeland. One of them is the work of Atto Vannucci, of 1877, entitled “I martiri della libertà italiana dal 1794 al 1848” (volume 3). But also the book by Oreste Ferdinando Tencajoli, entitled “La Corsica: curiosità e notizie storiche, con numerose illustrazioni nel testo”.

The Gambini family was originally from Corte, Corsica. It seems it was a large family of distinguished soldiers, as in the French archives of the Legion of Honour, we find four well-known members: Gambini Jean Baptiste born in 1792, Gambini Dominique born in 1845, Gambini Epaminondas Dominique born in 1855, and Gambini Pierre François born in 1891.

The revolutionary – warrior Gambini Pasquale, fought in Greece on the side of the Greeks, and bravely sacrificed his life for the independence of Greece. Unfortunately, to this day few people know anything about this important and heroic Philhellene. SHP and the Greeks honour the contribution of this great hero.

 

Sources – Bibliography

  • Ψηφιοποιημένα αρχεία του Πανεπιστήμιου του Aberdeen http://calms.abdn.ac.uk/DServe/dserve.exe?dsqServer=Calms&dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqCmd=NaviTree.tcl&dsqField=RefNo&dsqItem=MS%201160/20/591#HER
  • Averoff Michelle, «Les Philhellènes», Bulletin de l’Association Guillaume Budé, no 3, Octobre 1967, σσ. 312-332.
  • Barth Wilhelm – Max Kehrig-Korn, Die Philhellenenzeit, von der Mitte des 18 Jahrhunderts bis zur Ermordung Kapodistrias am 9 Oktober 1831, εκδ. Hueber, Munchen, 1960.
  • Βάση δεδομένων των παρασήμων του Τάγματος της Λεγεώνας της Τιμής http://wwwcoulture.gouv.fr/documentation/leonore/leonore.htm, Dossiers LΗ061/1, LH1066/2, LH 1066/3, 19800035/108/13540.
  • Εθνική Βιβλιοθήκη της Ελλάδας, Τμήμα Χειρογράφων και Ομοιοιτύπων, χειρόγραφο υπ΄ αρ. 1.697: Henri Fornèsy, «Le monument des philhellènes», 1860.
  • Correspondance inédite officielle et confidentielle de Napoléon Bonaparte, Paris, C.L.F. Panckoucke, 1819.
  • Elliot Charles William James (επιμ.), Campaign of the Falieri and Piraeus in the year 1827, or Journal of a volunteer, being the personal account of Captain Thomas Douglas Whitcombe, Athens, [Gennadeion Monographs, vol. 5], Princeton 1992.
  • Gordon Thomas, History of the Greek Revolution, 1, London, William Blackwood, Edinburg & T. Cadell, Strand, 1844.
  • Histoire illustrée de la Corse, Pillet, 1863.
  • Oreste Ferdinando Tencajoli, La Corsica : curiosità e notizie storiche, con numerose illustrazioni nel testo, Modernissima Libreria Internazionale, Roma, 1931.
  • Papadacci Elie, Les bandits corses, honneur et dignité, Claire Vigne, 1994.
  • Robiquet F., Recherches Historiques et Statistiques sur La Corse, Paris-Rennes, 1835.
  • Silvani Paul, Bandits Courses, du mythe à la réalité, Albiana, 2010.
  • Sottocasa Valérie, Les brigands, criminalité et protestation politique (1750-1850), Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 1994.
  • St-Clair William, That Greece might still be free – The Philhellenes in the War of Independence, τόμος 1, εκδ. Oxford University Press, London-New York,
  • Vannucci Atto ; I martiri della libertà italiana dal 1794 al 1848, tome 3, Milano, Bortoloti E. C., 1877.
  • Vergé-Franceschi Michel, Le voyage en Corse, R. Laffront, 2009.
  • Άννινος Μπάμπης, Ιστορικά σημειώματα, εκδ. Εστία, Αθήνα 1925.
  • Μεγάλη Ελληνική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια, Βίκτορ Δουσμανής, 1926, Πυρσός, τόμος 8, σ. 413).
  • Παπαρηγόπουλος Κωνσταντίνος, Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους, Αθήνα, Εκ της Τυπογραφίας Ανδρέου Κορομηλά, 1853.
  • Τρικούπης Σπυρίδωνας, Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Επαναστάσεως, τόμος Δ΄, Λονδίνο, 1857.

 

Vice Admiral Karl Rudolf Brommy (1804 – 1860)

 

Karl Rudolf Brommy (1804 – 1860), was a German naval officer and a Philhellene.

He was born in the village of Anger, which was incorporated into the city of Leipzig in 1889. He was the son of Judge Johann Simon Bromme (1758-1808) and Friederike Louise Bromme (1771-1806). He lost his parents during his childhood. In 1818 he received permission from his guardian to become a sailor. He studied at the Hamburg Navigation School and then embarked on his first sea voyage with the boat “Heinrich”[1].

Little is known about the early years of Brommy’s naval career after graduating from the Hamburg Naval Academy in the summer of 1820[2].

He travelled extensively in Central America with the “Heinrich”. According to his own statements, he was then recruited on various American sailing ships as of 1822 and was promoted to captain in 1826[3]. He also changed his surname from Bromme to Brommy during this period.

When Brommy was informed about the Greek Struggle for Independence, he decided to follow in early 1827, the British Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Lord of Dundonald (1775-1860)[4], who came to Greece to take command of the Greek Navy.

Brommy initially served as the first officer of the flagship frigate “Hellas”, until 1828. In 1828 he was transferred to the corvette “Hydra”, with which he took part in the operations to rescue revolted Cretans to free Greece and to the suppression of piracy. It is worth noting here that the Corvette “Hydra” was an important ship of the Turkish-Egyptian fleet, which was captured by Cochrane and handed over to Greece. Then, in 1829, Brommy was placed in the squadron of the Greek Admiral Andreas Miaoulis, as captain of the steam-powered corvette “Epicheirisis” (a ship of the same type as the Karteria, designed by the great Philhellene Captain Abney Hastings). From this position he participated in the battle of Preveza (gulf of Arta) and finally in the liberation of Messolonghi, on May 2, 1829[5].

Karteria and Hellas. Lithography by Karl Krazeisen (SHP collection)

In 1831 Brommy left Greece, and made a series of scientific trips to France, England and Germany, and eventually ended up in Saxony.

In 1832, Prince Othon of Bavaria was proclaimed King of Greece. Brommy was then part of the Greek Delegation, which under Kostas Botsaris, Andreas Miaoulis and Dimitrios Plapoutas, offered the crown of Greece to Othon and accompanied the young king to Greece. With the arrival of Othon in Greece, Brommy was initially appointed captain of the ship “Ermis”. He later became a member of the Committee of the Ministry of the Navy and commander of the Naval Station in Poros[6].

During his next term in the Ministry of the Navy, Brommy created a new organizational plan for the Greek Navy. Later he became deputy commander of the military school, first in Aegina and then in Piraeus. His desire to establish a naval school did not come true during his service in Greece[7]. According to his ideas, a naval school should be created on a ship, so that the manoeuvres to be successful in practice and not in theory. In many of his memoirs to King Othon, Brommy promoted his idea, but without success[8]. Even when the Greek captain Leonidas Palaskas (1819-1880) had the same idea in 1846 and tried to create the “Naval Academy” on the corvette “Ludwig”[9] , he failed due to the resistance of the political leadership.

After the revolution of September 3, 1843, Brommy was appointed president of the Maritime Court, where he served until April 19, 1849. He then formally retired from the Greek service. As early as 1845, King Frederick William IV of Prussia (1795-1861) had invited him to organize the Prussian Navy, after reading his handbook “Die Marine – eine gemeinverständliche Darstellung des gesammten Seewesens für Gebild”[10]. Brommy had recorded all his experience from his participation in the navy, and especially in Greece, in an important book. This book was ideal for training young Navy sailors.

The emblematic book of Admiral Brommy (SHP collection)

Brommy accepted the proposal of the Prussian King in 1848. It was presented to him, through the Prussian Minister of Trade and Shipping Arnold Duckwitz, by the President of the Frankfurt National Assembly Heinrich von Gagern[11].

With his direct collaborator, Prince Adalbert of Prussia, Brommy devoted himself to the organization of the Prussian Navy from the beginning, being the captain of the flagship “Barbarossa”. On March 18, 1849, Brommy became Commander of the North Sea Fleet with the flagship of the Prussian fleet Barbarossa. A steamer similar to ‘’Karteria’’ and ‘’Epicheirisis’’ that Brommy had studied and commanded in Greece.

The flagship of the Prussian fleet SMS ‘’Barbarossa’’

In fact, Brommy intervened and turned it to a powerful weapon, despite the minimal time he had to organize it. The strength of the newly formed Prussian Navy was quickly demonstrated in the Denmark – Prussia War of 1849. This war ended with the Battle of Heligoland on June 4, 1849[12], which resulted in the London Protocol of May 8, 1852, which reinstated the pre-war status quo[13].

Admiral Brommy’s hat (SHP collection)

Brommy was retired with the rank of rear admiral on June 30, 1853, due to his poor health and the disbandment of the early Prussian Navy. The decision was taken by the National Assembly of Frankfurt on April 2, 1852, with the aim of creating a new fleet. Despite all this, Brommy was accepted a commission as technical consultant in the Austrian Imperial Navy in June 1857. However, as his health further deteriorated, he resigned and retired with his family to Bremen, where he died in 1860[14].

Bust of Admiral Brommy in Bremen, Germany

Brommy’s Monument near the house he was born in Leipzig

Karl Rudolf Brommy was a great Philhellene, with a significant contribution to Greece. Admiral Brommy participated in the liberation struggle of the Greeks. He then played an important role in setting up the Greek Navy and in designing a training program for naval officers. SHP honours this important Philhellene.

 

References

[1] Uhlrich, Claus, ‘’Carl Rudolph Brommy. Der Admiral der ersten deutschen Flotte’’, εκδ. Semikolon Verlag, Βερολίνο, 2000.
[2] Αρχείο υποναυάρχου Karl Rudolf Brommy (ανέκδοτο), Μουσείο Ναυτιλίας Brake, Ολδεμβούργο, Γερμανία.
[3] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[4] Τρικούπης, Σπυρίδων, ‘’Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Επαναστάσεως’’, εκδ. Βουλή των Ελλήνων, Αθήνα, 2007,σελ. 118.
[5] Wagner, Erwin, ‘’ Carl Rudolph Brommy (1804–1860) als Marineoffizier in Griechenland (1827–1849)’’, εκδ. Isensee-Verlag, Brake, 2009.
[6] ‘’Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως του Βασιλείου της Ελλάδος’’, 17 Αυγούστου 1835, Αθήνα, Φ.Ε.Κ. αριθμ.24.
[7] Carsten, Jöhnk, ‘’ Ein Sachse erobert die Welt. Admiral Brommy zum 200. Geburtstag’’, εκδ. Schiffahrtsmuseum, Brake, 2004.
[8] Αρχείο υποναυάρχου Carl Rudolph Brommy (ανέκδοτο), Μουσείο Ναυτιλίας Brake, Ολδεμβούργο.
[9] Λυκούδης, Στυλιανός, ‘’Ολίγα τινά δια τον μέγαν του ναυτικού μας ευεργέτην, τον τότε Λεωνίδαν Χ. Παλάσκαν, πλοίαρχον του Β.Ν.’’, ιδ. εκδ., Αθήνα, 1938.
[10] Brommy, Karl Rudolf,‘’ Die Marine – eine gemeinverständliche Darstellung des gesammten Seewesens für Gebildete aller Stände’’, εκδ. Carl E. Schünemann, Βερολίνο, 1849.
[11] Αρχείο υποναυάρχου Carl Rudolph Brommy (ανέκδοτο), Μουσείο Ναυτιλίας Brake, Ολδεμβούργο.
[12] ‘’Das Seegefecht bei Helgoland’’, εφ. ‘’Illustrirte Zeitung’’, Λειψία, 1849, αρ. φυλ. 27.
[13] Beseler, Georg, ‘’Der Londoner Vertrag vom 8. Mai 1852 in seiner rechtlichen Bedeutung geprüft’’, εκδ. Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, Βερολίνο,1863.
[14]  Wiechmann, Gerhard, ‘’Karl Rudolf Brommy (1804–1860) in deutschen Erinnerungsorten’’, εκδ. Isensee-Verlag, Brake, 2010.

 

Bibliography-Sources

  • Brommy, Karl Rudolf, “Die Marine – eine gemeinverständliche Darstellung des gesammten Seewesens für Gebildete aller Stände“, εκδ. Carl E. Schünemann, Βερολίνο, 1849.
  • Τρικούπης, Σπυρίδων, ”Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Επαναστάσεως”, εκδ. Βουλή των Ελλήνων, Αθήνα, 2007, σελ. 118.
  • Uhlrich, Claus, “Carl Rudolph Brommy. Der Admiral der ersten deutschen Flotte“, εκδ. Semikolon Verlag, Βερολίνο, 2000.
  • Carsten, Jöhnk, “Ein Sachse erobert die Welt. Admiral Brommy zum 200. Geburtstag’”, εκδ. Schiffahrtsmuseum, Brake, 2004.
  • Αρχείο υποναυάρχου Carl Rudolph Brommy (ανέκδοτο), Μουσείο Ναυτιλίας Brake, Ολδεμβούργο.
  • Beseler, Georg, “Der Londoner Vertrag vom 8. Mai 1852 in seiner rechtlichen Bedeutung geprüft”, εκδ. Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, Βερολίνο, 1863.
  • “Das Seegefecht bei Helgoland”, εφ. “Illustrirte Zeitung”, Λειψία, 1849, αρ. φυλ. 27.
  • Wagner, Erwin, “Carl Rudolph Brommy (1804–1860) als Marineoffizier in Griechenland (1827–1849)“, εκδ. Isensee-Verlag, Brake, 2009.
  • Λυκούδης, Στυλιανός, ‘’Ολίγα τινά δια τον μέγαν του ναυτικού μας ευεργέτην, τον τότε Λεωνίδαν Χ. Παλάσκαν, πλοίαρχον του Β.Ν.’’, ιδ. εκδ., Αθήνα, 1938.
  • “Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως του Βασιλείου της Ελλάδος”, 17 Αυγούστου 1835, Αθήνα, Φ.Ε.Κ. αριθμ. 24.

 

Leicester Fitzgerald Charles Stanhope, 5th Earl of Harrington (1784-1862). 1830s. Sketch of an unknown artist. University of Oxford.

 

Leicester Fitzgerald Charles Stanhope, 5th Earl of Harrington (1784-1862), was a British officer, a great Philhellene, with a significant influence on the creation of the press in Greece and on the promotion of an educational system.

Born in Dublin, he was the third child of General, diplomat and politician Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington, and Jane Fleming-Stanhope, Lady of Harrington[1].

He pursued a military career from his adolescence. At the age of just 15, in October 1799, he was enlisted in the 1st Regiment of the Royal Guard, initially holding the rank of cornet and later the one of second lieutenant[2]. He was promoted to lieutenant on October 20, 1802[3]. In March 1803 he was transferred to the 9th Infantry Regiment, while in April of the same year, he was transferred as cavalry lieutenant to the 10th Light Dragon Regiment of the Prince of Wales[4].

From 9 November 1803 to 26 January 1813, he served in the 6th Dragoon Regiment of the Royal Guard, while on 27 January 1813, he was transferred to the 17th Light Dragoon Regiment in India[5]. . In India he was promoted to cavalry major and appointed deputy adjutant general in the East Indies in June 1815, while he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel.[6].

In April 1817, Stanhope served as Deputy Quartermaster – General in the 47th Infantry Regiment and took part in the 3rd Anglo – Maratha War[7]. For his action, he was honoured in October 1818 with the Order of the Bath[8].

At the same time, his philhellenic interests began to develop[9]. In the process, he resigned from the army on March 29, 1821 and on June 26, 1823, he was placed in the reserve in a state of combat readiness, bearing the rank of lieutenant colonel[10].

The Philhellenic Committee of London was founded on February 28, 1823[11] . Stanhope was quickly initiated into it by Lord Byron and he was one of its first members.[12].

Before going to Greece, in their correspondence, Stanhope and Lord Byron express different tendencies. Stanhope, although a military man, believes that the most powerful weapon is the “pen” (i.e. the promotion of education and the press), while Lord Byron, despite being himself a writer, he believes that the battlefields are the first school of freedom (which is first conquered by military means), and therefore that the sword precedes the pen[13]. This, however, in no way negates the fact that both tried to help Greece, with Lord Byron himself offering his own life in Messolonghi on April 7, 1824[14].

Stanhope had proved to be an excellent manager and so the Philhellenic Committee of London sent him to Greece with the mission of Lord Byron, on July 16, 1823[15]. In fact, he was appointed together with Lord Byron and Lazaros Kountouriotis, member of the management committee of the first loan that the revolted Greeks would receive during this period[16].

Before arriving in Greece, he organized an important tour (accompanied by another active German philhellene, Wilhelm Bellier de Launoy), starting in Darmstadt, Germany, Zurich, Bern, Geneva and Genoa, Italy. There, Stanhope met with representatives of the local Philhellenic committees, to whom he presented with many speeches his vision and ideas for strengthening the struggle of the Greeks. In fact, during this tour, he also met with Ioannis Kapodistrias[17]. ΕHe finally arrived in Kefalonia, which was at that time under British rule, on August 4, 1823[18]. From Kefalonia, he passed in December 1823 to Messolonghi[19].

Stanhope, in addition to accompanying Lord Byron, was also responsible for transporting to Greece, the first printing machines, which had been purchased by the Philhellenic Committee of London. He himself believed that the development of the press would be an effective weapon for the freedom of the Greeks[20]. Thanks to this obsession, he laid the foundations for the creation of newspapers in Greece with this printing facility. Specifically, the emblematic newspaper “Hellenic Chronicles”, which was published from 1824 to 1826 in Messolonghi, by the important Philhellene Swiss doctor Johann Jacob Meyer (1798-1826), was printed with the material brought by Stanhope[21]. In fact, from March 20, 1824, a second newspaper began to be published in the same printing house, edited by Gamba, the Italian earl and a close friend of Lord Byron (he was the brother of Byron’s companion). Its title was “Telegrafo Greco”. This newspaper was addressed mainly to foreigners and aimed at informing the European public opinion. It was printed in English, French, German and Italian.

Stanhope also visited the leaders – chieftains of the warring parties in Central Greece (during the civil war), and attempted to reconcile them.[22].

What characterized Stanhope as a personality (but also the quality of his Philhellenism), was his intellectual cultivation, and the very advanced and progressive plans he had for the design of the modern Greek society, with emphasis on the design of the educational system, the creation of schools and medical centres, the establishment and operation of a Post Service, and most importantly, in the promotion of journalism.

In Athens, where he spent a long time, he founded schools and designed their curriculum[23]. He also organized a scholarship program for young Greeks to study in England and return to Greece to take up their duties as teachers.

In Athens he closely monitored the operation of local institutions. In fact, on February 21-23, 1824, he participated in the process of electing the city’s representatives.

He intended to deliver to Nafplio (seat of the government), the second printing facility that he brought to Greece. Eventually, however, he preferred to send it to Athens with the aim of publishing a newspaper there and not in Nafplio, which was a centre of intense political manipulations and disputes.

Stanhope dreamed of publishing a national and independent newspaper, whose mission would be to promote the issues of the national liberation struggle and to increase the prestige of Greece.

So he donated the equipment to Athens (which was delivered and installed for security reasons in Salamis). The donation was accompanied by a very moving letter on April 20, 1824. Stanhope assigned the responsibility for the publication to the Athenian G. Psyllas. The first edition concerned an extensive “Proclamation” which was drafted jointly by Psyllas and Stanhope. This extensive proclamation had a patriotic content, and highlighted the damage that confrontations and discord can cause.

This was followed by the publication of the newspaper entitled “Efimeris Athinon”. The first issue was printed on August 20, 1824 and the newspaper circulated until April 1826, when Kioutachis pasha began the siege of Athens.

Stanhope also met Odysseus Androutsos in Athens, and was fascinated by his personality, as was the other Greek philhellene Trelawny.

Stanhope was a pure Philhellene who loved Greece passionately, and especially Athens, which owes him a lot. In his continuous correspondence, he invited his English compatriots to come to Greece, providing them information on the cost of living and assuring them of the security that prevailed in the liberated parts of the country. He also communicated with politicians and diplomats from many countries, whom he urged to help Greece. Of particular interest are the letters he sent to Gropius, the consul of Austria in Athens.

The Greeks considered him their own friend, and always expressed to him their love and recognition.

The death of his mother, and two months later, the death of Lord Byron on April 7, 1824, as well as his confrontation with Kountouriotis and Mavrokordatos, forced Stanhope to leave Greece in May 1824 and return to his homeland[24].  The loss of Stanhope was particularly painful for the Greeks and the Athenians. The wisdom, the circumspection and the vision of this man, would have helped considerably Greece.

In fact, he returned with the same ship that carried the body of Lord Byron.

Hellenic Chronicles, issue 69 of 23 August 1824. It contains an article referring to the arrival of Lord Byron’s body in London.

Stanhope never ceased to be interested in what was happening in Greece, about which he maintained dense correspondence with people such as Kapodistrias and Mavrokordatos[25]. In 1825, he wrote the book “Greece, in 1823 and 1824: Being a Series of Letters, and Other Documents”, through which he informed the British public about the situation in Greece.

Stanhope’s book “Greece, in 1823 and 1824: Being a Series of Letters, and Other Documents” (SHP collection).

The greatness of this important philhellene derives from the content of his farewell letter to the Greeks, published in May 1824 in the “Greek Chronicles” and in the “Friend of the Law”. He mentions among other things the following:

“Your great forefathers, because of the jealousies and divisions, which they had among themselves, lost their freedom. So from experience and from many years of frictions you know the evil, that comes from discord and you want again, you Greeks, descendants of Themistocles and Miltiades, to plunge into a sea of danger. Money, you say, insures your victory and independence. So why did your ancestors drive the Persians to flee and you yourself the Turks, who were so rich and superior in number? Because they were corrupt by tyranny and despotism while the Greeks were poor and free. So it is a lie to argue that gold and iron are the nerves of war. These are only auxiliary means. The nerves of war are heart and courage …”.

And this fierce Philhellene adds: “… I am and I want to be while you are free, your most respectful slave”.

After the end of the Greek Revolution, Stanhope retired from public life. On April 23, 1831, he married Elisabeth Green, with whom he had 4 children[26]. In 1837 he was promoted to honorary colonel of the British Army[27]. Finally, in 1851, he succeeded his brother, Lt. General Charles Stanhope Jr., as 5th Earl of Harrington.

Leicester Fitzgerald Charles Stanhope, 5th Earl of Harrington, officer and Philhellene, died on September 7, 1862 in London.

SHP pays tribute to the memory of Leicester Stanhope, a noble Philhellene, who brought the first printing facility, triggered the birth of the press in Greece, proposed innovative forms of organisation of the society, and promoted culture to a significant level, highlighting a different dimension of the struggle of the Greeks for national independence.

 

References

[1] Doyle, James William Edmund, “The Official Baronage of England”, εκδ. Longmans, Λονδίνο, 1886, β’ τόμος, σελ. 136.
[2] Εφ. ‘’The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 28ης Σεπτεμβρίου 1799, σελ.995.
[3] Doyle, James William Edmund, ‘’The Official Baronage of England’’, εκδ. Longmans, Λονδίνο, 1886, β’ τόμος, σελ. 136.
[4] Εφ. ‘’The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 15ης Μαρτίου 1803, σελ. 369.
[5] Εφ. ‘’The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 23ης  Ιανουαρίου 1813, σελ.186.
[6] Εφ. ‘’The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 8ης Ιουλίου 1815, σελ. 1355.
[7] Downham, John, “The 47th (Lancashire) Regiment of Foot”, εκδ. Lancashire Infantry Museum, Lancaster, 2010.
[8] Εφ. ‘’The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 18ης Οκτωβρίου 1818, σελ. 1851.
[9] Rosen, F., ‘’ London Greek Committee (act. 1823–1826)’’, εκδ. Oxford University Press, Λονδίνο, 1992.
[10] Εφ. ‘’ The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 5ης Ιουλίου 1823,   σελ. 1090.
[11] Dimaras, Alexis, ‘’The other British Philhelenes’’, εκδ. Oxford University Press, Λονδίνο, αχρονολόγητο.
[12] St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still be Free: The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ. 145.
[13] Moore, Thomas, ‘’Letters and Journals of Lord Byron with Notices of his Life’’, εκδ. H. L. Broenner, Φρανκφούρτη, 1830. Επίσης, βλ. Αθάνας, Γ., ‘’Ιστορικά Μελετήματα’’, εκδ. Ίδρυμα Γ & Μ. Αθανασιάδη – Νόβα, Ναύπακτος, 1998, σελ. 194.
[14] Moore, Thomas, ‘’Letters and Journals of Lord Byron with Notices of his Life’’, εκδ. H. L. Broenner , Φρανκφούρτη, 1830
[15] Lovell, Ernest J., ‘’His Very Self and Voice, Collected Conversations of Lord Byron’’, εκδ. MacMillan, Νέα Υόρκη, 1954, σελ. 369.
[16] ‘’Ιστορικόν Αρχείον Αλεξάνδρου Μαυροκορδάτου’’, επιμ. Εμμ. Πρωτοψάλτης, Γενικά Αρχεία του Κράτους, Αθήνα, τόμος 3.
[17] St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still be Free: The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ. 159.
[18] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[19] Stanhope, Leicester, 5ος κόμης του Harrington, “Greece, in 1823 and 1824: Being a Series of Letters, and Other Documents”, εκδ. Sherwood, Gilbert & Piper, Λονδίνο, 1825, σελ. 543.
[20] Εφημερίδα «Ελληνικά Χρονικά», 1η Ιανουαρίου 1824, Μεσολόγγι, φύλλο 1. Επίσης, βλ. St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still be Free: The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ.160.
[21]Συλλογικό, ‘’Πεντακόσια χρόνια έντυπης παράδοσης’’, εκδ. Βιβλιοθήκη της Βουλής των Ελλήνων, Αθήνα, 2000, σελ.192.
[22] St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still be Free: The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008
[23]  ‘’Αρχείο Leicester Stanhope’’, Γενικά Αρχεία του Κράτους, Αθήνα, τόμοι 13 και 15α’. Επίσης, βλ. St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still be Free: The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ. 159-161.
[24] ‘’Αρχεία της Ελληνικής Παλιγγενεσίας’’, εκδ. Βουλή των Ελλήνων, Αθήνα, 1977, 10ος τόμος, σελ. 299.
[25] “Αρχείο Leicester Stanhope”, Γενικά Αρχεία του Κράτους, Αθήνα, τόμοι 13 και 15α’. Επίσης, βλ. “Ιστορικόν Αρχείον Αλεξάνδρου Μαυροκορδάτου”, επιμ. Εμμ. Πρωτοψάλτης, Γενικά Αρχεία του Κράτους, Αθήνα, τόμος 3.
[26] Doyle, James William Edmund, “The Official Baronage of England”, εκδ. Longmans, Λονδίνο, 1886, β’ τόμος, σελ. 136.
[27] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

 

Bibliography – Sources

  • Doyle, James William Edmund, “The Official Baronage of England”, εκδ. Longmans, Λονδίνο, 1886, β’ τόμος.
  • Εφ. ‘’The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 28ης Σεπτεμβρίου 1799.
  • Εφ. ‘’The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 15ης Μαρτίου 1803.
  • Εφ. ‘’The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 23ης Ιανουαρίου 1813.
  • Εφ. ‘’The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 8ης Ιουλίου 1815.
  • Εφ. ‘’The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 18ης Οκτωβρίου 1818.
  • Εφ. ‘’The London Gazette’’, Λονδίνο, φύλλο 5ης Ιουλίου 1823.
  • Downham, John, ‘’The 47th (Lancashire) Regiment of Foot’’, εκδ. Lancashire Infantry Museum, Lancaster, 2010.
  • Rosen, F., ‘’London Greek Committee (act. 1823–1826)’’, εκδ. Oxford University Press, Λονδίνο, 1992.
  • Dimaras, Alexis, ‘’The other British Philhelenes’’, εκδ. Oxford University Press, Λονδίνο, αχρονολόγητο.
  • St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still be Free: The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008.
  • Lovell, Ernest J., ‘’His Very Self and Voice, Collected Conversations of Lord Byron’’, εκδ. MacMillan, Νέα Υόρκη, 1954.
  • Stanhope, Leicester, 5ος κόμης του Harrington, “Greece, in 1823 and 1824: Being a Series of Letters, and Other Documents”, εκδ. Sherwood, Gilbert & Piper, Λονδίνο, 1825.
  • Εφημ. “Ελληνικά Χρονικά”, 1η Ιανουαρίου 1824, Μεσολόγγι, φύλλο 1.
  • Συλλογικό, ‘’Πεντακόσια χρόνια έντυπης παράδοσης’’, εκδ. Βιβλιοθήκη της Βουλής των Ελλήνων, Αθήνα, 2000.
  • ‘’Αρχεία της Ελληνικής Παλιγγενεσίας’’, εκδ. Βουλή των Ελλήνων, Αθήνα, 1977, 10ος τόμος.
  • ‘’Αρχείο Leicester Stanhope’’, Γενικά Αρχεία του Κράτους, Αθήνα, τόμοι 13 και 15α’.
  • ‘’Ιστορικόν Αρχείον Αλεξάνδρου Μαυροκορδάτου’’, επιμ. Εμμ. Πρωτοψάλτης, Γενικά Αρχεία του Κράτους, Αθήνα, τόμος 3.
  • Moore, Thomas, ‘’Letters and Journals of Lord Byron with Notices of his Life’’, εκδ. H. L. Broenner, Φρανκφούρτη, 1830.
  • Αθάνας, Γ., ‘’Ιστορικά Μελετήματα’’, εκδ. Ίδρυμα Γ & Μ. Αθανασιάδη – Νόβα, Ναύπακτος, 1998.
  • Δημητρίου Α. Γέροντα, “Οι Αθηναίοι στην Επανάσταση του 1821“

 

 

Karl Krazeisen

 

Karl Krazeisen (1794-1878), was a German officer, a prominent Philhellene and painter, who painted the portraits of the main fighters of the Greek war for independence.

There is no information about the first years of his life, except that his birthplace was the town of Kastellaun in the Rhineland-Palatinate[1].

In 1812 he enlisted in the Bavarian Army and took part in the war of the Sixth Coalition against France, in 1813-1814[2].

Karl Krazeisen. Photo of an unknown photographer. Late 1840s – early 1850s. The person depicted is wearing the uniform of Colonel of the Bavarian Army. Among the Medals he bears are the Greek Silver Excellence of the Struggle (first from the right) and the Greek Brigadier General of the Order of the Knights of the Redeemer (second from the right). National History Museum, Athens.

Karl Krazeisen expressed his philhellenic sentiments, during the Greek revolution. In August 1826, he was serving in Bavaria, with the rank of lieutenant, when he decided to go to Greece to support the struggle of the Greeks. Without securing the necessary leave from his unit, he embarked on a long journey from Munich, and finally reached Nafplio in Greece, via Italy (Ancona), Durres, Corfu, Zakynthos, with stops in Poros, Aegina and Salamis. Then he moved to Athens and joined the Corps of Bavarian volunteers under the command of Karl Wilhelm von Heideck. This unit was created at the instigation of the king of Bavaria Ludwig I, father of the future king of Greece Othon[3].

Although he stayed in Greece for only a year, until August 1827, he took part in important battles, especially in Athens. Also, his presence in Aegina coincides with the arrival of the first Greek steamer, the “Karteria” (whose captain was the English Philhellene Frank Abney Hastings), as well as the frigate “Hellas”[4].

Karteria and Hellas. Lithography by Karl Krazeisen (SHP collection)

During his stay in Greece, Krazeisen served in Salamis and Nafplio, while he took part in the siege of Athens in 1826, under the orders of Charles Fabvier[5]. He also fought in the siege of the Acropolis, from March to April 1827, but also in the battle of Faliro, during which the Greek General Georgios Karaiskakis was killed. Krazeisen painted the face of the Greek General one day before his fatal injury. In August 1827 Krazeisen painted his last painting in Greece, that of the great Philhellene baron Friedrich Eduard von Rheineck (1796-1854).

Upon his return to Germany, Krazeisen was discharged from the Bavarian army due to his unauthorized absence, which constituted ‘’desertion”. However, he returned again to the ranks of the army, with a parallel recognition of his military ranks, for the sake of his service in Greece under the orders of Karl Wilhelm von Heideck.

Krazeisen was honoured with many German Medals, while at the same time he was the holder of the Greek moral rewards of the Silver Excellence of the Struggle and the Brigadier General of the Order of the Knights of the Redeemer. A depiction in the painting “The camp of Karaiskakis in Piraeus in the year 1827”[6], which was painted by Theodoros Vryzakis, reminds of Krazeisen’s military activity in Greece. The German officer, placed in the lower left corner of the painting, stands among the Greek warriors, with his right leg bent, while pointing to the Acropolis of Athens with his left hand.

Krazeisen as depicted in Vryzakis’ painting

Karl Krazeisen left no memoirs or notes. But he left a very important artistic and historical work.

It all started on August 11, 1826 in Nafplio, when Krazeisen met Georgios Kountouriotis and sketched his portrait, which was the first he created. Gradually, he met most of the fighters and leaders of the Greek National Uprising of 1821. Among them were chieftains, navy captains, political leaders and Philhellenes. He first designed their portrait and then asked them to sign the work depicting them, as a certificate of authenticity. After his return to Germany, he created a series of lithographs that offer us the opportunity to know exactly the face of Theodoros Kolokotronis, Georgios Karaiskakis, Nikitaras, Ioannis Makrygiannis, Andreas Miaoulis, Konstantinos Kanaris, Kitsos Tzavellas, Tombazis, Georgios Kountouriotis, Georgios Mavromichalis, Andreas Zaimis, Sisinis and many others. And of course some of the most famous Philhellenes, like Charles Fabvier, Frank Hastings and Thomas Gordon[7].

After Krazeisen’s death, the collection of his work was inherited by his daughter, Maria Krazeisen – Fetova, the wife of Russian professor Ion Radionov Fetov, who taught in Berlin and later in Galatsi, Romania. After Maria’s death, her husband informed the Greek painter Nikolaos Gyzis about the existence of the lithographs and that he wanted to give them to the Greek State. Gyzis advised him to give them to the (under establishment) Museum of the city of Athens. On February 13, 1926, Fetov submitted the history of the collection and informed officially the Greek consulate in Galatsi, Romania, while assigning the sale to Antipas, a Greek resident abroad. A short time later, Zacharias Papantoniou, director of the National Gallery at that time, asked the Greek governmentt (through an article[8] he published) to buy the bequest. This was effected for the sum of 200,000 drachmas, and then it was handed over to the National Gallery. The collection includes the box with the watercolors and the brushes of Krazeisen, the leather skate of the fighter of 1821 Dimitrios Plapoutas, which is exhibited in the Branch of the War Museum in Nafplio, a photograph of the painter and 24 lithographs. At the same time, the detailed list of works in the Romanian language was obtained, with a brief introduction of the history, where it is emphasized that the portraits were designed from the natural models, and that each one bears the handwritten signatures of the person depicted.

Krazeisen lithographs can be found in the Eleftherios Venizelos Hall of the National History Museum in Athens. The collection has been presented in whole to the public three times at an exhibition level[9].

According to Pantelis Prevelakis, a professor at the School of Fine Arts, the portraits of Krazeisen “are enough to compose the archetypal image of the National Fighter that the collective subconscious looks for. Seen from the historical and psychological point of view, each portrait is an invaluable testimony for the race, the character, the social of the depicted[10].

The director of the National Gallery Marina Lambraki-Plaka wrote about it: “…. Karl Krazeisen put the person pictured to sign at the bottom of the paper. We owe him admiration for his providence and gratitude for this silent and concrete testimony … If Karl Krazeisen had not taken painting lessons, he would have practiced so much that his drawings cannot be considered amateur works. His look is penetrating, sharp and supported by a hand that draws hesitantly, but with great precision and sensitivity. His drawings often have the quality of the neoclassical painter Engre … We owe indeed gratitude both to the heirs of Krazeisen who preserved this treasure and to Zacharias Papantoniou, director of the National Gallery at that  time, who had the inspiration to obtain it in 1926 …[11].

SHP pays due tribute to Karl Krazeisen, because his Philhellenism combines both his action for the Freedom of the Greeks, and a strong spiritual part, which in the long run proves to be extremely historical, as he painted the figures of the important protagonists of the Greek Revolution of 1821, Greeks and Philhellenes, who would have been lost, leaving history in several points incomplete.

 

Portraits of Karl Krazeisen

This is a rare series of the lithographs of Krazeisen, which are hand-painted.

 

References

[1] Nagler, Georg Kaspar, ‘’Neuesallgemeines Kuenstler-Lexicon’’, Μόναχο, 1839, σελ.168.
[2] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[3]   St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ. 335.
[4] Οικονόμου, Μιχαήλ, “Ιστορικά της Ελληνικής Παλιγγενεσίας ή ο ιερός των Ελλήνων αγών”, εκδ. Θ. Παπαλεξανδρή, Αθήνα, 1873, σελ. 781.
[5] Τράιμπερ, Ερρίκος, “Αναμνήσεις από την Ελλάδα 1822-1828”, επιμ. δρ. Χρήστος Ν. Αποστολίδης, ιδ. εκδ., Αθήνα, 1960, σελ. 76.
[6] Κασιμάτη, Μαριλένα Ζ., “Ο Υπολοχαγός Καρλ Κράτσαϊζεν ζωγραφίζει τους Έλληνες και φιλέλληνες αγωνιστές του 1821”, εκδ. εφ. “Καθημερινή”, ένθετο “Επτά ημέρες”, Αθήνα, 25 Μαρτίου 2003, σελ. 5-13.
[7] Krazeisen, Karl, “Bildnisse ausgezeichneter Griechen und Philhellenen nebst einigen Ansichten und Trachten. Nach der Natur gezeichnet und herausgegeben von Karl Krazeisen”, 7 τόμοι, Μόναχο, 1827-1831.
[8] Παπαντωνίου, Ζαχαρίας, Εφημερίδα “Ελεύθερον Βήμα”, φύλλο 23ης Μαΐου 1926,Αθήνα, 1926.
[9] Κασιμάτη, Μαριλένα Ζ., “Ο Υπολοχαγός Καρλ Κράτσαϊζεν ζωγραφίζει τους Έλληνες και φιλέλληνες αγωνιστές του 1821”, εκδ. εφ. “Καθημερινή”, ένθετο “Επτά ημέρες”, Αθήνα, 25 Μαρτίου 2003, σελ. 5-13.
[10]  Πρεβελάκης, Παντελής, “Ο Καρλ Κράτσαϊζεν στην Ελλάδα”, περιοδικό “Νέα Εστία”, Αθήνα, 1972,τεύχος 1075, σελ. 499-502.
[11] Λαμπράκη-Πλάκα, Μαρίνα, εφημερίδα “Τα Νέα”, 18 Δεκεμβρίου 2005, Αθήνα.

 

Sources – Bibliography

  • St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008.
  • Οικονόμου, Μιχαήλ, “Ιστορικά της Ελληνικής Παλιγγενεσίας ή ο ιερός των Ελλήνων αγών”, εκδ. Θ. Παπαλεξανδρή, Αθήνα, 1873.
  • Krazeisen, Karl, “Bildnisse ausgezeichneter Griechen und Philhellenen nebst einigen Ansichten und Trachten. Nach der Natur gezeichnet und herausgegeben von Karl Krazeisen”, 7 τόμοι, Μόναχο, 1827-1831.
  • Τράιμπερ, Ερρίκος, “Αναμνήσεις από την Ελλάδα 1822-1828”, επιμ. δρ. Χρήστος Ν. Αποστολίδης, ιδ .εκδ., Αθήνα, 1960.
  • Παπαντωνίου, Ζαχαρίας, Εφημερίδα “Ελεύθερον Βήμα”, φύλλο 23ης Μαΐου 1926, Αθήνα, 1926.
  • Πρεβελάκης, Παντελής, “Ο Καρλ Κράτσαϊζεν στην Ελλάδα”, περιοδικό “Νέα Εστία”, Αθήνα, 1972, τεύχος 1075.
  • Κασιμάτη, Μαριλένα Ζ., “Ο Υπολοχαγός Καρλ Κράτσαϊζεν ζωγραφίζει τους Έλληνες και φιλέλληνες αγωνιστές του 1821”, εκδ. εφ. “Καθημερινή”, ένθετο “Επτά ημέρες”, Αθήνα, 25 Μαρτίου 2003.
  • Λαμπράκη-Πλάκα, Μαρίνα, εφημερίδα “Τα Νέα”, 18 Δεκεμβρίου 2005, Αθήνα.

 

 

Jean Gabriel Eynard, 19nth century portrait

 

Jean Gabriel Eynard (1775-1863), was a Swiss banker, diplomat and prominent Philhellene, a great supporter of the Greek Revolution, and a benefactor of Greece.

His father was Gabriel-Antoine Eynard, a merchant and banker from the old and powerful noble family of Mont-Eynard, who came from the province of Dauphiné in the South East France[1].

The original branch of the family remained Roman Catholic, while the younger one had joined the Reformation. Gabriel-Antoine Eynard (father of Jean Gabriel Eynard), came from the Calvinist branch of the family, who immediately after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685), had taken refuge in Geneva to maintain his faith. Several members of the family held public office in the city and developed outstanding philanthropic work, while Jean-Gabriel Eynard’s grandfather, Jean-Louis Eynard de Trémolières, was called l’avocat des pauvres (“the lawyer of the poor”)[2].

In 1769, Gabriel-Antoine Eynard moved to Lyon, where he founded a trading company. In 1770, after his first wife Marie-Françoise de Normandie, had died, he married Marie-Madeleine Meuricoffre, the daughter of a merchant from Thurgau, Switzerland, with whom he had three children. The second one was Jean Gabriel Eynard. The young man, who is raised in a strict Calvinist environment, is extremely studious and art-loving. From an early age he learns from his father the economic and commercial processes and he excels professionally.[3].

In 1793 the bloody conflict between the Jacobins and the Girondins takes great proportions. Lyon had joined the monarchical camp, and was besieged by the troops of the French Conventional Assembly. The Eynard family was among the city’s defenders. Gabriel-Antoine Eynard was in fact the elected mayor of Lyon. On October 9, the city was occupied by the rebels[4]. Jean Gabriel Eynard managed to escape to Geneva. On the contrary, his father was arrested, sentenced to death and his property was confiscated. Nevertheless, he finally managed to escape. The whole family settled in the small Swiss town of Rolle, in the canton of Vaud, on the shores of the Geneva lake[5].

Because his paternal estate was destroyed in Lyon, Jean Gabriel Eynard’s father sent him to his half-sister, Lisette Gaulis, who lived in Genoa, to work in her husband’s important trading company[6].

He spent some time there offering his services as an employee, and then he decided to start his own trading business (Eynard Frères et Schmidt), with his brother Jacques and another former employee of Gaulis’ firm[7].

The two brothers boldly and successfully developed a business (trading olive oil, cream and chewing gum), and thus managed to pay off all the previous obligations of the parent’s company[8].

In April – June 1800 the English and Austrians besieged Genoa (Napoleonic wars of subjugation). Jean Gabriel Eynard supported the troops of the French general Andre Massena, participating bravely as a volunteer in the defense of the besieged and starving city, which finally surrendered on June 4, 1800[9].

Eynard moved for some time to Milan, where he met General Horace Francois Bastien Sebastiani de la Porta (1772-1851), later French ambassador to Constantinople[10], where he came in contact with the French staff. He then ended up in Livorno[11].

Eynard became a great merchant in Italy, a powerful banker, a capable manager and a diplomat. Indicatively, we remind that he managed to invest with great success, a loan of 1,450,000 pounds of the Duchy of Etruria, in minerals and iron mines, and in lands of Central Italy[12].

In 1803 he retired from the banking house he had founded with his brother in Genoa and settled in Florence, where he took up public office in parallel with his business and commercial / banking activities. From this operation, he acquired a large fortune and his businesses expanded to Geneva and the commercial cities of Florence and Livorno in Italy[13].

He held high public office for a number of years, which allowed him to reorganize the finances of several Italian states, such as the Duchy of Etruria, the Principalities of Luca and Piombino, the State of Tuscany, and others. In the autumn of 1804 he participated as a member of the Tuscan diplomatic delegation in the ceremonies for the coronation of Napoleon in Paris. A few months later, in Milan, he firmly defended the interests of the duchy (tax reduction) before the emperor and king of Italy Napoleon[14].

In 1807 he became central collector of taxes in the principalities of Luca and Piombino, ruled by Felix Bacciochi and his wife Eliza Bonaparte, Napoleon’s sister.

In 1808 he became a Swiss citizen and citizen of Rolle. He returned to Paris next year as a member of the Tuscan delegation to thank Napoleon for the appointment of his sister Eliza to the Tuscan throne. In addition to his political duties, he spent time in Paris studying chemistry with Baron Thénard[15].

In 1814 – 15 Geneva was admitted to the Swiss Federation. Eynard organized and supplied at his expenses, the cavalry of the National Guard, of which he was appointed lieutenant colonel, with the mission of protecting the independence of the region from the aspirations of the French. He was a member of the Geneva High Council and secretary of the delegation to the “Treaties of Paris” and the Congress of Vienna, together with his uncle, through his wife Anna Eynard Lullin Charles Pictet de Rochemont (1755-1824) and Francois d’lvernois[16].

In these international meetings they tried to ensure the recognition of Geneva’s annexation to the Swiss Federation, as well as the neutrality of Switzerland[17].

Ioannis Kapodistrias, a special envoy of the Russian emperor Alexander I, consistently supported their demands in the broader context of the Russian politics and became their close friend. At the Vienna Congress, Eynard was accompanied by his wife. The couple was acquainted with most of the powerful rulers, great politicians and diplomats of the time. Their meeting with Ioannis Kapodistrias resulted in a warm, sincere and long-term friendship. The friendship of the two men was Eynard’s first substantial contact with the affairs of the Greeks. The leading Corfiot diplomat and politician, informed the French-Swiss banker about the sufferings of the Greeks enslaved by the Turks[18]. At the Congress of Vienna, the four “Great Powers” concluded the “European Agreement”, known as the Holy Alliance, against all the revolutionary and liberation movements of their time. This created a negative climate, mainly on the Austrian side, inspired by Chancellor Metternich, and for the Greek cause[19].

Between 1817 and 1821, Eynard built his family mansion in Geneva, on the Promenades des Bastions, based on designs by the Italian architect G. Salucci and the decisive contribution of himself and his wife. The building followed a Florentine – neoclassical style, and it was the most beautiful of that time in the city. This building was renovated later and became the City Hall[20]. The emblematic house of Eynard became the “headquarters” of European philhellenism and a centre of culture, a few years later. Eynard developed in parallel a rich social and intellectual activity; he was a pioneer or active member in various literary and artistic societies of Geneva, such as the Société de Lecture, Société des Arts, Société d’Histoire et d’ Archéologie, the Utilité Publique, he supported charitable initiatives, took care of the beautification of the city[21] etc. A few years later he acquired luxury residences in Florence, Rome and Paris. At the same time he continued his political activity. So in 1816 he undertook to restore the public finances of the State of Tuscany. In the autumn of 1818 he represented the Grand Duke of Tuscany Ferdinand at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle. He remained in his court as a counselor until 1821. For his contribution he was honored as early as 1818 with the title of nobleman of Florence and knight of St. Joseph[22].

After the outbreak of the Greek Revolution in the Danube Hegemonies and in Greece in 1821, Eynard was one of the first Europeans to become increasingly involved in the movement to support the revolted Greeks.

Jean Gabriel Eynard, lithography 19th    century (SHP collection)

In August 1821 he founded, together with Favre-Bertrand, Et.-L. Dumont, J.C.L. de Sismondi, Bellot, and others, the first philhellenic committee in Geneva, which was quickly recognized by the committees of other Swiss cities as the coordinating authority. Eynard became immediately the organizer, the soul and the pillar of all the philhellenic committees of Europe (Geneva, Paris, Bern, Zurich, Lausanne, Berlin, Munich, Dresden, etc.). The Philhellenic Committees helped with fundraising, public events and the enlightment of the public opinion, the Greek Struggle for Liberation[23].

At the beginning of the Greek Revolution, the Phanariote princes Ioannis Karatzas, Alexandros Mavrokordatos and Michael Soutzos, were hosted at his house and became Eynard’s friends. From the autumn of 1822 he started working closely with Ioannis Kapodistrias, who, after resigning from his duties in the Czar’s Court, lived permanently in Geneva and worked for the Greek Struggle[24].

Letter of 1825, sent by Eynard to the French historian and Philhellene Jean-Alexandre Buchon (1791-1849), author of the famous work “Chronique de la Morée” (SHP collection)

In the coming years, Eynard will become the brave sponsor of the Greek Struggle. He will facilitate and finance the transportation to Greece of foreign volunteers, of food, ammunition and money for the struggling Greeks. Being a prominent economic and political figure, he had the opportunity to promote the Greek cause to foreign European courts and governments, to diplomats and personalities from his social environment, in international meetings and conferences. His vast correspondence, travels and contacts have the sole aim of restoring Greece, which he never succeeded to visit in his life. His correspondence with the Greek chieftains and politicians, protagonists of the Revolution, is also remarkable[25]. He rightly acquired the title of “Rector of the Greeks” and “Friend of the Greeks”[26].

Medal in the honour of J. G. Eynard bearing the title “L’ami des grecs” (SHP collection)

During the period 1825-1827, after the landing of the Egyptian troops of Ibrahim Pasha in the Peloponnese and the siege of Messolonghi, when the Struggle entered a critical phase, Eynard worked intensively in Paris for four months for the formation of the Philhellenic Committee and the delivery of financial assistance to Greece. He also tried to secure a loan with favorable terms, which would be managed by the Philhellenic Committee of Paris. Finally the Greek representatives preferred to conclude the well-known loans in London[27].

In September 1825, thanks to the actions of Eynard, the Philhellenic committee of Geneva collected 55,000 – 60,000 francs for the Greeks. He supplied another 40,000 francs to the two envoys Fr. Marcet and W. Romilly, of the Paris and Geneva Committees respectively, for food and ammunition to be sent to Greece the following year. When Eynard was informed of the siege of Messolonghi he was shocked. Especially because he had experienced the same gloomy situation twice in his life. He immediately sent as his own contribution 12,000-15,000 francs for wheat, and secured another 60,000 francs from the French Philhellenes. These sums were sent via Zakynthos to Greece, to the battlefields and to Messolonghi[28]. At the same time, he addressed an emblematic message “to the glorious military leaders of the brave Messolonghi and to its brave guard”.

His passion was such that he and his wife went to Ancona to personally oversee and manage the loading of ships with supplies for the city of martyrdom (Messolonghi), which in the meantime had succumbed to Ibrahim’s hordes.

Suzanne Elisabeth Eynard (1775-1844), the destruction of the island of Psara by the Turks. Painting of Eynard’s bride, wife of Eynard’s brother, Jaques (SHP collection).

The sacrifice of Messolonghi convinced Eynard that a more effective coordination of the relief effort was needed. It is worth noting how much he was moved by the capture of the Greeks and their sale in slave markets in the Mediterranean. He immediately sent 51,000 francs to buy back the freedom of the enslaved Greek women and children. At the same time, he appointed G. Papamanolis in Kythira and T. T. Petrini in Nafplio as his representatives. He also sent his compatriot Swiss doctor and Philhellene, Louis-André Gosse to Greece to optimize the management of the aid[29].

“LE COURRIER FRANCAIS”, April 28, 1826. Newspaper, number 118. It contains one of the first written references on the events of the Greek revolution and more specifically it quotes correspondence saved by Eynard and comments the events and movements of the neighboring areas in in relation to the third siege of Messolonghi (SHP collection).

His insight leads him to important interventions with an impact also on the military aspects of the Greek struggle. His assessment was that Greece had to maintain its sovereignty over the sea. A domination that it had begun to lose. Thus he mediated for Admiral Cochrane[30] to be sent to Greece. At the time, Cochrane was the most famous international admiral. It was a military and political instrument, whose name alone was enough to terrorize the enemy. When it was announced that Admiral Cochrane was finally going to Greece, the interest rate of the Greek loan was immediately reduced by 15%. His arrival in Greece was for months the key topic of discussion in Greece and Turkey.

In the same context, Eynard contributed 150,000 francs to cover the costs for the shipbuilding and equipment of Karteria, the first steam-powered warship to take part in military operations in naval history[31].

From the fall of Messolonghi until the first days of 1827, the Swiss, German and French Philhellenic Committees sent to Greece, under the coordination of Eynard, food of a total weight of 7.4 million pounds. Moreover, only in 1827, Eynard sent to Greece over 800,000 francs from fundraisers. In a report that he presented at the end of 1827, he stated that only the weekly fundraiser of 1826 alone, contributed in total more than 2.5 million francs for the Greeks. Without official diplomatic status, but relying on his great international prestige, he successfully handled the great Greek diplomatic problems of the period 1827-1832, significantly influencing the decisions of London in July 1827 and Paris in 1829-30. In May 1827, the Third National Assembly in Troizina awarded honorably to him the Greek citizenship “by naturalizing him as a true Greek and a citizen of Greece”[32].

Fabvier’s letter of recommendation to Eynard asking him to assist a Greek studying in Pisa and Paris. “Sir, the young Vassilios Anagnostis Papamanolis from Hydra, after studying in Pisa, will be in Paris for your exams. Knowing both your philanthropic work and the deep interest you show in this nation, I take the courage to warmly recommend this young man to you at critical moments. The people of Hydra wake up (awaken) and show a growing determination towards the danger of their homeland. I commit to this young person with this simple letter. The high esteem you enjoy in Europe and the generous warmth that characterizes you will do more for the subject than I could have hoped for myself. I convey to you, sir, the confirmation of the unlimited devotion with which I have the honor to deal with you. Colonel Fabvier. Hydra, on the 4th of November 1826″ (SHP collection).

In the period between 1827 and 1831, when Ioannis Kapodistrias was appointed Governor of Greece, he found in his person the wise advisor and the constant supporter in any financial difficulty faced by the newly formed Greek State. Greece owes Eynard multifold financial support, funds for the agricultural development and the establishment of the agricultural school of Tiryns, the sending of seeds, potatoes, tools, medicines, his contribution for the reconstruction of villages, the organization of the national education and the army, the creation of the National Financial Bank (for which it sent a total of 100,000 francs), the granting of state loans that had been refused to Greece by the Powers[33], etc.

Two letters of 1828, by I. Kapodistrias to J. G. Eynard. The two letters were written at a particularly critical time for the fate of the newly established Greek state and this is reflected in their content. 1828 was a difficult and decisive year for the successful outcome of the Revolution. Kapodistrias had already returned to Greece in January to take over the government and organize a state on ruins. In addition to the most serious financial difficulties, there was a danger that the Revolution would be stifled by the presence of Ibrahim in the Peloponnese. The French expedition to the Peloponnese at the end of August forced Ibrahim to leave. In the conference of Poros that followed, with the presence of the ambassadors of the great powers, Kapodistrias tried to achieve the most favorable demarcation of the borders of the modern Greek state.

Of particular note is the loan of 1,500,000 francs in 1829, which was used to pay the army and to combat robbery. In 1828, Eynard was forced to go to the Pyrenees because of his wife’s health. He assigned Michael Soutzos in Paris to replace him, who was then appointed on the recommendation of Eynard, ambassador to Paris[34]. In 1830, although Eynard was close to French politics, he supported the candidacy for the Greek throne of the Prince of Saxe-Cobourg-Gotha Leopold[35]. In the same year, the city of Thebes gave his name to its largest square, while in 1837 the city council decided to erect a monument in the square, “in honor of this gentle man and benefactor of the homeland”.

The assassination of the Greek Governor caused a crash to his beloved Swiss friend, who had even prepared a small house for him in Beaulieu, to spend the last years of his life quietly. To honour Ioannis Kapodistrias, to defend his memory from unfavorable comments of Greeks and foreigners, but also to protect the reputation of Greece, he published in Paris a collection of public and private documents on the sad events of 1831 entitled ”Official letters and documents related to the last events of Greece; which preceded and followed the death of the count Capodistrias, up to October 31, 1831”[36].

CAPODISTRIAS]. ”Official letters and documents related to the last events of Greece; which preceded and followed the death of the count Capodistrias, up to October 31, 1831”. Paris, Firmin Didot Frères, 1831; in-8, paperback. First edition, published by several members of the former Greek committee of Paris: André, Duc de Broglie, Cottier, Vicomte de Chateaubriand, Duc de Choiseul, duc de Dalberg, comte Alexandre de Laborde, Benjamin Delessert, Ambroise Firmin-Didot, Comte Eugène d’Harcourt, Mahul, Baron Ternaux, Villemain. Label stuck under the title, on the first cover cover: “We kindly ask your peers and deputies to read this brochure, especially as of page 293, and particularly the last three pages of the volume” (SHP collection).

During the years 1831-1836 Eynard arranged to send the experienced French economist Arthémond de Regny, his close friend, to Greece, with a mission to organize the country’s public finances. De Regny was appointed “General Supervisor of the Kingdom’s finances”, and in 1834 he founded (and became its first president), the Court of Auditors. In 1838 he took over as general curator of financial management[37]. De Regny’s acquaintance at the Court of Auditors with Georgios Stavros and the friendship of the two men led a little later to the establishment of the National Bank.

Greece awarded Eynard in 1837 with the Royal Decree of 17.7.1837, the Grand Cross of the Knights of the Order of the Redeemer. At the same time, Eynard was honoured by the French government with the Legion of Honor[38].

From 1837 to 1840, Eynard participated in various attempts to establish a bank in the modern Greek state, either alone or with the English house Wright and later with Dutch investors. Unfortunately, these attempts were unsuccessful. In the meantime, already in 1838, Eynard lent 300,000 francs to de Regny and Georgios Stavros, with the aim of buying commercial bills in the Athenian market with 8% interest, in order to combat usury. This initiative was successful and it led to a drastic reduction of the claims of the usurers[39].

His philhellenic feelings and sincere interest never stopped. Thus, in 1841 Eynard proclaims a “new alarm of the Philhellenes”, and undertakes efforts to help the Cretan Revolution of 1841, to liberate Crete and to unite with Greece. However, he did not manage to send aid, because the revolution was quickly suppressed. He also intervened for the release of Christian prisoners in Algeria during the Franco-Algerian conflict of 1839-1841[40].

The contribution of this great man culminates with his decisive suppot for the establishment of the National Bank of Greece (NBG) in March 1841.

Letter from George Stavros to J. G. Eynard. The opposition to king Othon’s rule and the bankruptcy of the Greek state in 1843, led to the military uprising of September 3, 1843. Military units were sent to occupy buildings vital to the functioning of the state, including the building of the National Bank of Greece. The letter presents the atmosphere of the shocking events of the time. This is a confidential letter, dated “Athens, December 14/26, 1843”. G. Stavros analyzes in detail the new political situation, the people who make up the new cabinet (Palamidis, Mansolas, Melas, etc.) and the conflicts between them. He refers to Mavrokordatos and Kolettis and gives the impression of a robust manager who manages effectively the affairs of the bank in the rapidly evolving political scene (SHP collection).

Eynard supported George Stavros for the position of director of the Bank. Jean Gabriel Eynard and Nikolaos Zosimas were declared “honorary directors” of NBG by the preliminary assembly of shareholders on November 13, 1841[41].

In 1842 the Educational Society elected him honorary president. In 1843, a year of economic crisis in Greece, Eynard tried to persuade foreign powers to lend the country again. When the Greek government closed its embassies, Eynard again offered to take over the diplomatic representation of Greece abroad. During this same period, he also mediated in settling the claims of various of his compatriots – investors, against the Russian state and Czar Nicholas I awarded him the Cross of the Order of St. Anne[42].

At the same time, during this period, he continued to be a pioneer in culture. Eynard was the first to promote the art of daguerreotype, becoming an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences in Paris[43].

Jean Gabriel Eynard (1850s). Daguerreotype. Archive of the Hellenic-Swiss Association “Jean Gabriel Eynard”, Geneva.

In 1847 Eynard facilitated the Greek government by granting it a loan of 500,000 francs, in order to meet its obligation to pay the semester’s installment of the national loan of 1832 of 60,000,000 francs. From 1848 onwards he was isolated from social life, devoting more and more time to religion and to the study of Christian texts. In addition, he was suffering from health problems[44].

After the end of the Crimean War (1856) king Othon appealed to him, asking him to use his prestige to mediate at the Peace Conference in Paris, for favorable solutions in favor of Greece[45].

King Othon himself visited him in 1862 in Beaulieu, to personally convey to him the love and gratitude of the Greek people and to hand over to him the highest Greek medal, the Grand Cross of the Redeemer, which had already been awarded to him in 1837.

Jean Gabriel Eynard, this great Philhellene, national benefactor of Greece and noble pioneer of culture, passed away on February 5, 1863 in Geneva.

SHP, Greece and the Greeks will forever honour the memory of this remarkable noble Philhellene, who selflessly and generously, offered until his last breath, contributing decisively, both for the success of the Independence of Greece and the economic and social organization of the young state, as well as for the evolution of culture.

 

References

[1] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς, Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα,1999, σελ.13.

[2]  Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[3] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[4] Chapuisat, Edouard, ‘’Jean-Gabriel Eynard et son temps : 1775-1863’’, εκδ. A. Jullien, Γενεύη, 1952, σελ.14.

[5] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα,1999, σελ. 13.

[6] Monod, Roger, ‘’Famille Eynard”, εκδ. Archives de la Ville de Genève, Γενεύη, 1982, σελ. 35.

[7] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[8] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα,1999, σελ.13.

[9] Βλ. στο ίδιο, σελ.14.

[10] Driault, Edouard, ‘’Etudes napoleoniennes’’, εκδ. F. Alcan, Παρίσι, 1904, σελ. 101.

[11] Bouvier-Bron, Michelle, ’’Une jeunesse en Italie. Les années de formation de Jean Gabriel Eynard’’, εκδ. Slatkine, Γενεύη, 2019, σελ. 179.

[12]  Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[13]  Συλλογή Diodati – Eynard 1685-1904, Βιβλιοθήκη της Γενεύης, φάκελος 15, έγγραφο υπ’ αριθμ.64.

[14]  Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[15] Chapuisat, Edouard, ‘’Jean-Gabriel Eynard et son temps : 1775-1863’’, εκδ. A. Jullien, Γενεύη, 1952, σελ. 38.

[16]  Chapuisat, Edouard, ‘’ Journal de Jean-Gabriel Eynard publié avec une introduction et des notes’’, εκδ. Plon Nouritt, Γενεύη, 1924,   α’ τόμος.

[17] Καποδίστριας, Ιωάννης, ‘’Αυτοβιογραφία Ιωάννου Καποδίστρια’’, επιμ. Μ. Λάσκαρις, εκδ. Γαλαξίας, Αθήνα,1968, σελ. 35-36.

[18] Woodhouse, Christopher Montague, ‘’Capodistria. The founder of Greek Independence’’, εκδ. Oxford University Press, Λονδίνο, 1973, σελ. 82.

[19] Grimsted Kennedy, Patricia,’’Capodistrias and a ‘’new order’’ for restoration Europe: the ‘’liberal ideas’’ of a Russian Foreign Minister, 1814-1822’’, περ. ‘’The Journal of Modern History’’, Σικάγο, 1968, τεύχος 40, σελ. 166-172.

[20] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Ε’υ’νάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα,1999, σελ.17.

[21] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[22]  Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[23]  Rouiller, Jean-Luc, ‘’La bibliothèque de La Grange’’, εκδ. La Baconnière : Bibliothèque de Genève, Γενεύη, 2011, σελ 11.

[24] Crawley, C.V., ’’John Capodistrias: Some Unpublished Documents’’, εκδ. Αριστοτελείου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης, Θεσσαλονίκη,1970,σελ.56.

[25] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα,1999, σελ.17.

[26] Βλ. στο ίδιο,σελ.18.

[27] Βλ. στο ίδιο,σελ.19.

[28] ‘’Ατομικός Φάκελος ναυάρχου Ανδρέα Μιαούλη’’, Ιστορικό Αρχείο Μουσείο Ύδρας, Ύδρα, γ’ τετράδιο, σελ. 156-160.

[29] St Clair, William, ‘’ That Greece Might Still Be Free.The Philhellenes in the War of Independence’’, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ. 335.

[30] Τρικούπης, Σπυρίδων, ‘’Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Επαναστάσεως’’, εκδ. Βουλή των Ελλήνων, Αθήνα, 2007, δ’ τόμος, σελ.118.

[31] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[32] Monod, Roger, ‘’Famille Eynard‘’, εκδ. Archives de la Ville de Genève, Γενεύη, 1982, σελ.290.

[33] Καποδίστριας, Ιωάννης, ‘’Επιστολαί διπλωματικαί, διοικητικαί και ιδιωτικαί, γραφείσαι από 8 Απριλίου 1827 μέχρι 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 1831’’, εκδ. Κωνσταντίνου Ράλλη, Αθήνα, 1841, γ’ τόμος, σελ. 285-288.

[34] Πρεβελάκης, Ελ.- Γλύτσης, Φ., ‘’Επιτομαί εγγράφων του Βρεταννικού Υπουργείου Εξωτερικών, Γενική Αλληλογραφία/Ελλάς’’, εκδ. Ακαδημία Αθηνών, Αθήνα, 1975, δ’ τόμος, σελ. 68-69.

[35] Καποδίστριας, Ιωάννης, ‘’ Επιστολαί διπλωματικαί, διοικητικαί και ιδιωτικαί, γραφείσαι από 8 Απριλίου 1827 μέχρι 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 1831’’, εκδ. Κωνσταντίνου Ράλλη, Αθήνα, 1841, γ’ τόμος, σελ. 379-380.

[36] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα, 1999, σελ. 20.

[37] Βακαλόπουλος, Κωνσταντίνος, “L’ économiste français Arthémond de Regny et son rôle dans l’histoire financière de la Grèce (1831-1841)”, εκδ. Αριστοτελείου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης, Θεσσαλονίκη, 1977.

[38] ‘’Diplôme et distinctions en faveur de Jean-Gabriel Eynard 1834-1854 (en français et en grec)’’, Συλλογή Diodati – Eynard 1685-1904, Βιβλιοθήκη της Γενεύης, φάκελος 15, έγγραφο υπ’ αριθμ. 77.

[39] ‘’Αρχείο Αλεξάνδρου Μαυροκορδάτου’’, Γενικά Αρχεία του Κράτους, Αθήνα, φακ.21, έγγρ. υπ’αριθμ.5891.

[40] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα, 1999, σελ.21.

[41] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[42] Βλ. στο ίδιο, σελ. 22.

[43] ‘’Eynard Daguerreotypes’’, J. Paul Getty Museum, Νέα Υόρκη.

[44] Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς, Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα, 1999, σελ.22.

[45] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

 

Bibliography – Sources

  • Καποδίστριας, Ιωάννης, ‘’Αυτοβιογραφία Ιωάννου Καποδίστρια’’, επιμ. Μ. Λάσκαρις, εκδ. Γαλαξίας, Αθήνα,1968.
  • ‘’Diplôme et distinctions en faveur de Jean-Gabriel Eynard 1834-1854 (en français et en grec)’’, Συλλογή Diodati – Eynard 1685-1904, Βιβλιοθήκη της Γενεύης.
  • St Clair, William, ‘’That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence’’, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008.
  • ‘’Αρχείο Αλεξάνδρου Μαυροκορδάτου’’, Γενικά Αρχεία του Κράτους, Αθήνα.
  • Νοταράς, Γεράσιμος, Καρατζάς , Θεόδωρος, Συνοδινός, Ζήσιμος, ‘’Ιωάννης Γαβριήλ Εϋνάρδος. Οραματιστής και κύριος συντελεστής της ίδρυσης της Εθνικής Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος’’, εκδ. Μ.Ι.Ε.Τ., Αθήνα, 1999.
  • Monod, Roger, ‘’Famille Eynard‘’, εκδ. Archives de la Ville de Genève, Γενεύη, 1982.
  • Πρεβελάκης, Ελ.- Γλύτσης, Φ., ‘’Επιτομαί εγγράφων του Βρετανικού Υπουργείου Εξωτερικών, Γενική Αλληλογραφία/Ελλάς’’, εκδ. Ακαδημία Αθηνών, Αθήνα, 1975, δ’ τόμος.
  • Βακαλόπουλος, Κωνσταντίνος,’’ L’ économiste français Arthémond de Regny et son rôle dans l’histoire financière de la Grèce (1831-1841)’’, εκδ. Αριστοτελείου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης, Θεσσαλονίκη, 1977.
  • Καποδίστριας, Ιωάννης, ‘’Επιστολαί διπλωματικαί, διοικητικαί και ιδιωτικαί, γραφείσαι από 8 Απριλίου 1827 μέχρι 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 1831’’, εκδ. Κωνσταντίνου Ράλλη, Αθήνα, 1841, γ’ τόμος.
  • Τρικούπης, Σπυρίδων, ‘’Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Επαναστάσεως’’, εκδ. Βουλή των Ελλήνων, Αθήνα, 2007, δ’ τόμος.
  • ‘’Ατομικός Φάκελος ναυάρχου Ανδρέα Μιαούλη’’, Ιστορικό Αρχείο Μουσείο Ύδρας, Ύδρα, γ’ τετράδιο.
  • Crawley, C.V., ’’John Capodistrias: Some Unpublished Documents’’, εκδ. Αριστοτελείου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης, Θεσσαλονίκη, 1970.
  • Rouiller, Jean-Luc, ‘’La bibliothèque de La Grange’’, εκδ.  La Baconnière: Bibliothèque de Genève, Γενεύη, 2011.
  • Woodhouse, Christopher Montague, “Capodistria. The founder of Greek Independence”, εκδ. Oxford University Press, Λονδίνο, 1973.
  • Grimsted Kennedy, Patricia, “Capodistrias and a ’new order’ for restoration Europe: the ’liberal ideas’ of a Russian Foreign Minister, 1814-1822”, περ. “The Journal of Modern History”, Σικάγο, 1968, τεύχος 40.
  • Chapuisat, Edouard, “Journal de Jean-Gabriel Eynard publié avec une introduction et des notes”, εκδ. Plon Nouritt, Γενεύη, 1924,   α’ τόμος.
  • Chapuisat, Edouard, “Jean-Gabriel Eynard et son temps : 1775-1863’, εκδ. A. Jullien, Γενεύη, 1952.
  • Bouvier-Bron, Michelle, “Une jeunesse en Italie. Les années de formation de Jean Gabriel Eynard”, εκδ. Slatkine, Γενεύη, 2019.
  • Driault, Edouard, “Etudes napoleoniennes”, εκδ. F. Alcan, Παρίσι, 1904.
  • Συλλογή Diodati – Eynard 1685-1904, Βιβλιοθήκη της Γενεύης.
  • “Αρχείο Αλεξάνδρου Μαυροκορδάτου”, Γενικά Αρχεία του Κράτους, Αθήνα.

 

Grenadier Non-Commissioned Officer of the Grenadier Regiment of the Bavarian Royal Guard during the Napoleonic Wars

 

Brothers Franz Beck (? – 1822) and Benjamin Beck (? – 1822), were German soldiers and Philhellenes.

Both were born in Wurzburg, Bavaria and served in the Bavarian Army[1].  Franz Beck fought in the Napoleonic Wars, first against the Austrians, and then against the French, where he distinguished himself, receiving the rank of sergeant major[2].

With the beginning of the Greek Revolution of 1821, the Beck brothers were among the first Philhellenes to arrive in Greece as volunteers[3]. They joined the German Legion and fought at the Battle of Peta on July 4, 1822[4].

After the disbandment of the German Legion, brothers Franz and Benjamin Beck fled to Messolonghi. During their stay in Messolonghi, they supported the defence of the city. When the first siege of Messolonghi by the Turks began, in early November 1822, the two brothers fought valiantly with the Greek forces. During a fierce battle, Franz Beck fell fighting heroically[5].

His brother Benjamin Beck, who was already ill, could not bear the loss of his brother and after a few days died of melancholy.[6].

The story of brothers Franz and Benjamin Beck is of particular interest. These are two pure Philhellenes, with noble feelings and devotion to the principles and ideals that Hellenism stands for. Their genuine enthusiasm led them while they were in Greece, to a series of brave deeds and finally, almost simultaneously, to a sacrifice, which places them among the most heroic and tragic figures of the Struggle for the Independence of Greece.

SHP honours the memory of brothers Franz and Benjamin Beck, brave and noble Philhellenes, who fought on the side of the Greeks, sparing no effort and with a supreme end, the sacrifice of their own lives.

 

References

[1] Περιοδικό “Εβδομάς”, Αθήνα, Έτος Α’ (1884), τόμος Α’ αρ. 1. (χωρίς ημερ.) ως και αρ. 27, 2 Σεπτεμβρίου 1884, εκδ. Κορίννη, Αθήνα, 1884, σελ.8.

[2] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[3] Konstantinou, Evangelos, “Europäischer PhilhellenismusUrsachen und Wirkungen’’, εκδ. Hieronymus”, Κολωνία, 1989.

[4] Εγκυκλοπαίδεια “Δομή”, εκδ. Δομή ΑΕ, Αθήνα, 2005, τόμος 19, σελ. 586.

[5] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

[6] St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ. 386.

 

Bibliography – Sources

  • Περιοδικό “Εβδομάς”, Αθήνα, Έτος Α’ (1884), τόμος Α’ αρ. 1. (χωρίς ημερ.) ως και αρ. 27, 2 Σεπτεμβρίου 1884, εκδ. Κορίννη, Αθήνα, 1884.
  • Konstantinou, Evangelos, “Europäischer Philhellenismus: Ursachen und Wirkungen“, εκδ. Hieronymus, Κολωνία, 1989.
  • Εγκυκλοπαίδεια “Δομή”, εκδ. Δομή Α.Ε., Αθήνα, 2005, τόμος 19.
  • St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008.

 

Officers of the Prussian Cavalry during the Napoleonic Wars. Left officer of the Cuirassier Regiment of the Prussian Royal Guard

 

Wilhelm Bellier de Launoy (? – 1826), was a German officer and Philhellene.

He served as an officer in the Cuirassier Regiment of the Prussian Royal Guard [1], during the Napoleonic Wars and fought against the French.

At the beginning of the Greek Revolution of 1821, he was a civilian living in Marseille, France. He was one of the first to join the Philhellenic Committee of Marseille, which he strengthened in various ways with his work.

One of the missions that the Committee assigned to him, led him in the Autumn of 1821, to move for the first time to Greece. Among others, he fought there in December in the Siege of Athens under the command of Demetrius Ypsilanti.[2].

He then moved to England and joined the Philhellenic Committee of London. In 1823 he followed the British colonel and important Philhellene, Leicester Stanhope on a trip to Greece, with a final destination Messolonghi.[3]. The journey began with a tour of Europe, with stops in Darmstadt, Germany, Zurich, Bern and Geneva in Switzerland, and Genoa in Italy. There, the two men met representatives of the local Philhellenic committees. Stanhope was also a member of the Philhellenic Committee of London, and was assigned (along with Lord Byron and Lazaros Kountouriotis) commissioner to manage the money of the first loan to Greece.

During his stay in Messolonghi, Bellier wrote a book titled “Einige Worte über Griechenland”, which describes the daily life and living conditions of Greek and Philhellene fighters.[4].

In mid-1823 he returned briefly to England. On January 11, 1824 he followed the distinguished Philhellene Alexander Kolbe [5] (;-1860) and travelled with him again to Messolonghi [6]. There he fought with him in the campaign against Omer Vryonis in the plain of Ligovitsa[7].

During his second stay in Messolonghi, Bellier de Launoy married a Greek woman[8] and lived there until the Exodus.

His wife was the sister of Altana Inglesi, who was the wife of the prominent Swiss Philhellene and publisher of the ‘’Hellenic Chronicles’’, John Jacob Meyer[9].

During the last siege of the city, Bellier de Launoy fought to defend it. In the end, he participated in the Exodus of Messolonghi and fell fighting heroically on April 10, 1826.[10].

SHP honours the memory of Wilhelm Bellier de Launoy, a heroic Philhellene, who fought for the Independence of Greece, finally sacrificing his own life.

Memorial in Messolonghi, dedicated to the German Philhellenes

 

References

[1] Περιοδικό “Εβδομάς”, Αθήνα, Έτος Α’(1884), τόμος Α’ αρ. 1. (χωρίς ημερ.) ως και αρ. 27, 2 Σεπτεμβρίου 1884, εκδ. Κορίννη, Αθήνα, 1884, σελ.8.
[2] Bellier de Launoy, Wilhelm, “Einige Worte über Griechenland“, εκδ. Maurer, Μόναχο, 1823.
[3] St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ.159.
[4] Bellier de Launoy, Wilhelm, “Einige Worte über Griechenland“, εκδ. Maurer, Μόναχο, 1823. Millingen, Julius, “Memoirs of the Affairs of Greece”, εκδ. John Rodwell, Λονδίνο, 1831.
[5] Βλ. στο ίδιο, σελ. 160-161.
[6] Τράιμπερ, Ερρίκος, “Αναμνήσεις από την Ελλάδα 1822-1828”, επιμ. δρ. Χρήστος Ν. Αποστολίδης, ιδ. εκδ., Αθήνα, 1960, σελ.59.
[7] Περιοδικό “Εβδομάς”, Αθήνα, Έτος Α’(1884), τόμος Α’ αρ. 1. (χωρίς ημερ.) ως και αρ. 27, 2 Σεπτεμβρίου 1884, εκδ. Κορίννη, Αθήνα, 1884, σελ.59.
[8] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[9] Ευαγγελάτος, Χρήστος, ‘’Οι Φιλέλληνες’’, ιδ. έκδ., Μεσολόγγι, 1937.
[10] Βλ. στο ίδιο.

 

Bibliography – Sources

  • Περιοδικό “Εβδομάς”, Αθήνα, Έτος Α’(1884), τόμος Α’ αρ. 1. (χωρίς ημερ.) ως και αρ. 27, 2 Σεπτεμβρίου 1884, εκδ. Κορίννη, Αθήνα, 1884.
  • St Clair, William, “That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence”, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008.
  • Bellier de Launoy, Wilhelm, “Einige Worte über Griechenland“, εκδ. Maurer, Μόναχο, 1823.
  • Millingen, Julius, “Memoirs of the Affairs of Greece”, εκδ. John Rodwell, Λονδίνο, 1831.
  • Τράιμπερ, Ερρίκος, “Αναμνήσεις από την Ελλάδα 1822-1828”, επιμ. δρ. Χρήστος Ν. Αποστολίδης, ιδ. εκδ., Αθήνα, 1960.
  • Ευαγγελάτος, Χρήστος, ‘’Οι Φιλέλληνες’’, ιδ. έκδ., Μεσολόγγι, 1937.

 

 

Antoine Schilcher, Bavarian Lieutenant (EEF Collection)

 

Antoine Schilcher (1795 – 1828), was a German officer and a Philhellene from Bavaria. He received military training in Munich and served as a lieutenant in the artillery of the Bavarian army. From 1813 to 1815 he fought against the French.

Officer and soldiers of the Bavarian artillery; beginning of the 19nth century.

Antoine Schilcher was an ardent Philhellene. So in August 1826, without receiving the necessary permission from his military unit, he left Munich and travelled to Greece, via Italy (Ancona), Durres, Corfu and Zakynthos. He finally arrived in Nafplio, without passing through the intermediate stations of Poros, Aegina and Salamis, through which Krazeisen had passed[1].

From Nafplio, he went to Athens and joined the Bavarian Volunteer Corps led by Karl Wilhelm von Heideck. This body was created at the instigation of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, father of the later king of Greece Othon[2].

In the bibliography (e.g. the one of Whitcombe[3]), there are references to a Bavarian officer named Schneider. Finally, these references concern Antoine Schilcher. This brave Bavarian officer took an active part in the military operations in Athens with von Heideck’s Corps.

He was later appointed captain of a gunboat and participated in naval military operations with Hastings and Thomas Gordon in Western Greece. He then took part in the campaign of Chios and fought under the command of general Fabvier, before returning to Poros.

Unfortunately, towards the end of 1827 he was seriously injured in a hunting accident[4]. He remained injured and ill for many months, and finally died on May 4, 1828. This sad development makes him one of the most tragic figures of a Philhellene, who came to fight for the Greek Independence. In fact, the fatal wound was caused by one of his friends, who lost his mind because of the death of his friend[5] .

The figure of Antoine Schilcher is known thanks to a lithograph by Karl Krazeisen, from Karl Krazeisen’s book “Bildnisse ausgezeichneter Griechen und Philhellenen, nebst einigen Ansichten und Trachten. Nach der Nature gezeichnet und herausegegeben von Karl Krazeisen”, Munich, 1831.

SHP honours the Holy Memory of Antoine Schilcher, a pure and brave Philhellene, with noble feelings, who fought, like many other Philhellenes, for the Independence of Greece, and in the end he sacrificed for this cause his own life.

 

References

[1] St Clair, William, ‘’That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence’’, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008, σελ.335.

[2] Περιοδικό ‘’Εβδομάς’’, Αθήνα, Έτος Α’(1884), τόμος Α’ αρ. 1. (χωρίς ημερ.) ως και αρ. 27, 2 Σεπτεμβρίου 1884, εκδ. Κορίννη, Αθήνα, 1884, σελ. 111.

[3] Whitcombe, Thomas, ‘’Campaign of the Falieri and Piraeus in the year 1827’’, εκδ. American School of The Classical Studies, Princeton, 1992, σελ. 184-185.

[4] Βλ. υποσημείωση 2.

[5] Βλ. υποσημείωση 2..

[6] Krazeisen, Karl,”Bildnisse ausgezeichneter Griechen und Philhellenen, nebst einigen Ansichten und Trachten.Nach der Nature gezeichnet und herausegegeben von Karl Krazeisen”, 7 τόμοι, Μόναχο, 1827-1831.

 

Bibliography – Sources

  • St Clair, William, ‘’That Greece Might Still Be Free. The Philhellenes in the War of Independence’’, εκδ. Open Book Publishers, Λονδίνο, 2008.
  • Whitcombe, Thomas, ‘’Campaign of the Falieri and Piraeus in the year 1827’’, εκδ. American School of The Classical Studies, Princeton, 1992.
  • Περιοδικό ‘’Εβδομάς’’, Αθήνα, Έτος Α’(1884), τόμος Α’ αρ. 1. (χωρίς ημερ.) ως και αρ. 27, 2 Σεπτεμβρίου 1884, εκδ. Κορίννη ,Αθήνα, 1884.
  • Krazeisen, Karl,”Bildnisse ausgezeichneter Griechen und Philhellenen, nebst einigen Ansichten und Trachten. Nach der Nature gezeichnet und herausegegeben von Karl Krazeisen”, 7 τόμοι, Μόναχο, 1827-1831.

 

French military engineer of the French army, in the early 19th century

 

Auguste-Théodore Garnot was a Lieutenant Colonel of the Corps of Engineers in France, creator and first commander of the Fortification and Architecture Corps (i.e. the Corps of Engineers) of the Greek Army in Greece.

He was born on June 29, 1796, in Brest, Brittany, France. His father was named François and he worked as a Commissioner in the French Navy. His mother’s name was Jeanne Claudine Laugée.

Auguste-Théodore Garnot studied at the famous Polytechnic School in Paris.

In October 1827, while Kapodistrias was still in Paris, he asked his friend, and a French Ministry of War official, Count Nicolas Loverdos, to help him send a team of technical experts from France to Greece for the reconstruction of the cities, the creation of a road network and the restoration of ancient monuments. Kapodistrias also requested the deployment of a small number of French officers, who would be used as military advisers.

Kapodistrias’s request was accepted and at the suggestion of the French Minister of War, a team of engineers was sent to Greece. It included Stamatis Voulgaris, who was originally from the Ionian Islands, and the graduates of the Polytechnic School of Paris, Auguste-Théodore Garnot and the geographer Jean-Pierre-Eugéne-Félic Péytier. A little later Jean-Henri Pauzié-Banne, first commander of the Central War School in Nafplio (Military School of Cadets) followed. It is indeed true that training in the field of architecture was at an infantile level in Greece at that time.

French military engineer geographer of the French army, early 19th century

The Map of the Morea of 1832 (by Captain Pierre Peytier), the first map of the Greek territory ever drawn scientifically and according to geodetic principles (collection SHP)

Auguste-Théodore Garnot arrived in Greece in mid-1828, following Stamatis Voulgaris, a French Army officer, former classmate and personal friend of Kapodistrias, who had already arrived in January. The first project undertaken by the then Captain Garnot, together with Voulgaris, was the design of the city of Tripoli. They also began to design together the city of Corinth, but Garnot continued on his own. Bulgaris dealt with the cities of Nafplio and Patras. Kapodistrias instructed Garnot to get involved in the planning of Patras, according to specific instructions that we find today in the Archives of Kapodistrias in Corfu.

In addition, Kapodistrias entrusted Garnot with the formation of the Corps of Engineers, within the Central School of War, which was named Corps of Fortification and Architecture Officers, according to the corresponding French standards. The Corps was instituted on July 28, 1829, with decrees nos. 13559 and 13958, published in the General Gazette on August 17, 1828. According to Maro Kardamitsi-Adami and her research in the Archives of Kapodistrias in Corfu, these decrees were originally drafted in French by Garnot himself. Garnot was later promoted to lieutenant colonel and became the first commander of the Corps, assisted by another French officer. The new Corps was expected to consist of 20 members, 12 of whom would be officers: one Major, four Captains, three Lieutenants, three second Lieutenants and eight project supervisors.

Garnot initially managed to find six persons to staff the Corps (decree no. 13560), five of whom were Greeks who had studied engineering in Europe: Emmanuel Manitakis and Emmanuel Kallergis, who had studied in France. Theodoros Vallianos with studies in Russia, the Swiss De Vaud, and Dimitrios Stavridis with studies in Austria. Some of them were private individuals who were assigned to the ranks of officers at the time of the award. Governor Kapodistrias also appointed Stefanos Isaias, who studied in Italy. These officers were placed in various fortresses of the Peloponnese.

Their mission, under the supervision and guidance of Garnot, was to prepare reports and plans for the construction, maintenance or improvement of fortifications, military and civil buildings, road construction, as well as the supervision of various building projects. The plans drawn up by the officers, were checked for their conformity and endorsed by the head of the Corps, Auguste-Théodore Garnot. Then they were submitted to the Governor for approval. It was a reputable body, the members of which received high salaries.

From this Engineer Corps of the Central War School graduated the first architects – engineers of Greece, who then, for about half a century, worked hard for the urban modernization of the country. The first officer was Lieutenant Spyridon Trikoupis, who was admitted to the school on February 4, 1829 and graduated on August 18, 1832. For a long time one could study architecture in Greece, only at the Central School of War, as the Polytechnic University and the Academy of Arts had not yet been established.

Plan of Patras by Stamatis Voulgaris and Auguste-Théodore Garnot

This informal situation, that is, the execution of urban civil works by the military, ceased to exist officially in 1878, when a Civil Engineers Corps was created, which joined the Public Works Service of the Ministry of Interior. Therefore, until that year, the term engineer covered the specialty of both military and civil architect-engineer. The level of training of engineers at the Central School of War was so high that Telemachos Vlassopoulos, the first to introduce the term “civil engineer” into the Greek language, in a 1859 article presenting the military schools of France, did not hesitate to state that studies provided in Greece were higher than those of the “École centrale des arts et manufactures” of Paris. Moreover, almost all the graduate engineers of the Central School of War, were following post-graduate studies in France.

In 1830 Theodoros Vallianos replaced Colonel Garnot who returned to France. A little later, the commandment was taken over by Count de Schaumbourg, who remained commander of the Corps even after the death of Kapodistrias.

The French influence exerted by the French officers of the Corps of Engineers in the School of Engineering of the Military School of Cadets, was important and timeless. Undoubtedly, the first city plans drawn up by Garnot and Voulgaris, as well as the plans of other engineers who came to strengthen the Expeditionary Corps of General Maison, contributed in this direction. Audoy and Peytier, for example, decisively influenced Greek engineers and laid the foundations of modern urban planning. The work performed by Greek and French engineers, under the supervision of Garnot, was unique for the whole Peloponnese and Aegina. In fact, as it is well known, the Governor wanted to use the French engineers also for the reconstruction of Central Greece.

Auguste-Théodore Garnot continued his career in France and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel. He died on March 10, 1869 in Bordeaux, at the age of 73.

He was awarded the medal of the Knight of the Legion of Honor in France on April 10, 1832 and the Officer of the Legion of Honor on April 22, 1847. He was also awarded the medal of the Knight of St. Louis on October 30, 1829. In Greece he was awarded the medal of the Knight of Golden Cross of the Order of the Redeemer on May 2, 1836.

 

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