Ludwig Lange, was a German architect and designer, born on March 22, 1808 in Darmstadt. His father, Christian Friedrich (1759–1840), was a clerk of the Court. Ludwig had two younger brothers with whom he cooperated. They also followed an artistic path; Gustav Georg became a painter of the Royal Court and Julius a landscape painter.

Ludwig Lange abandoned High School at a very young age, and studied under the architect and politician Georg August Lerch (1792-1857) between 1823 and 1826. He then studied at the University of Gießen and collaborated with the architect Georg Moller (1784-1852). From 1830 onwards he lived in Munich, and began experimenting with his brothers with perspective designs and drawings of buildings and monuments, an activity he would continue and perfect in the following decades. His work stands out both for his painting talent and for the excellent perception of the space he had as an architect.

An important acquaintance in his life was that with the landscape painter, Carl Rottmann (1797-1850), in Munich. He studied with him between 1830 and 1834 and developed a friendship relationship. Lange accompanied Rottmann in Greece, when the Bavarian monarch Ludwig I instructed him in 1834 to travel there and enrich his repertoire for the completion of a series of Greek works. During this difficult journey, Lange was a valuable consultant for Rottmann´s architectural plans. Based on the experiences he gained in Greece, Lange wrote the “Reiseberichte aus Griechenland” (Travel correspondences from Greece, 1835).

However, apart from his association with his teacher, Lange was distinguished in Greece for his own talents. King Othon hired him as his “Expert Civil Engineer” (Baurat), after Lange presented his architectural proposal for the creation of a “Church of the Savior” (Erlöserkirche). The project was not implemented due to financial difficulties. However, he designed other important buildings for the new capital of the Greek state. The initial proposal for the design of the National Archaeological Museum was his own, but the architects who completed the project, namely Ernst Ziller, Panagis Kalkos and Armodios Vlachos, intervened in his original plans. The newly established Royal High School of Athens was implemented based on Lange´s plans, where he also taught Design since 1835. The construction of the royal palaces at the foot of Lycabettus, as Lange suggested, was not found as the most appropriate solution.

During his stay in Greece he created a number of drawings and watercolors, which he later processed as oil paintings. About 150 of his paintings survived. His works gained appreciation by his colleagues, such as Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841). Like his teacher Rottmann, Lange created landscapes of the historical sites he visited (Sikyon, Corinth, Athens and its ancient port, Piraeus). On a later trip to Greece, it is reported that he visited Hydra and the Cyclades with the author Ludwig Steub (1812-1888).

His works are distinguished by realism, accuracy, and the successful perspective rendering of places and buildings. He did not refer a lot to historical or romantic elements. However, in his watercolor “The Acropolis of Athens in the time of Pericles” (Die Akropolis von Athen zur Zeit des Perikles, 1835), he painted an imaginary reconstruction of the ancient Acropolis – not the modern image of its hill.


The Acropolis of Athens at the time of Pericles, 1835


He also attempted to depict contemporary Athens in his watercolor “Athens and the Acropolis from the Northwest” (Athen und die Akropolis von Nordwesten, 1836), although it is possible that the painter did not capture the landscape he saw with absolute accuracy.


Athens and the Acropolis from the Northwest, 1836


The oil painting of “The Entrance to the free Athens” conveys his love for classical Greece once again, depicting the area, where the ancient Greek and Roman markets stood. This work was completed by Lange in 1838, after his return to Munich.


“The Entrance to free Athens”, 1838


From 1839 onwards Lange worked on various projects commissioned by Ludwig, and from 1847 onwards he took over the chair of Architecture of the Royal Academy of Munich. He traveled to Germany and created various designs from prominent German cities, which were published in architectural magazines. At the same time, he designed some vignettes with scenes of the Athenian landscape for the “Panorama of Athens” (Munich, 1841) by the painter Ferdinand Stademann (1791-1873), who had also visited Greece after Ludwig’sinvitation. Lange created many architectural plans, including a “palace for the heir to the throne” in Munich (Kronprinz-Palais, 1845) and the Nikolaikirche (Church of St. Nicholas) in Hamburg. The famous Museum of Fine Arts in Leipzig has also been designed by Ludwig Lange. In 1858 Lange published in Munich the work “Die griechischen Landschaftsgemälde von Karl Rottmann in der neuen königlichen Pinakothek zu München” (The Greek Landscapes of Karl Rottmann in the New Royal Gallery in Munich) which describes the works of his teacher.

Ludwig Lange died on March 31, 1868 in Munich, where his grave stands today. His works helped to promote the image of Greece in Europe.

SHP honors the Philhellene architect and painter, Ludwig Lange, who laid the foundation for the architectural design of the National Archaeological Museum, and created a number of works for Greece, disseminating the image of the country internationally.


Sources and Bibliography

  • Fuhrmeister, Christian; Jooss, Birgit (Hrsg.), Isar/Athen Griechische Künstler in München – Deutsche Künstler in Griechenland, Μόναχο
  • Καγιαδάκη, Μαρία, Οι ζωγράφοι Γεώργιος και Φίλιππος Μαργαρίτης. Τα πρώτα καλλιτεχνικά εργαστήρια στην Αθήνα του 19ου αιώνα. Διδακτορική διατριβή, Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης, 2008.



As it has already been pointed out, the development of the philhellenic movement begins from the end of the 18th century, when Europe discovers, thanks to Winckelman, Barthelemy and other scholars and historians of the time, ancient Greece, which progressively passes into the educational system of the western world.

During the second decade of the 19th century, the philhellenic movement entered a mature phase and synchronized with the demand for the liberation of Greece.

In this phase, there are three factors that shape philhellenism, and they are:

– the sense of debt to the ancient Greek culture,

– the liberal sentiments against tyranny and

– the common faith of the Christian nations.

In this article we present through a series of items from the collection of SHP, objects that highlight the importance and contribution of the common Christian faith in the development of the philhellenic movement. We selected objects and documents from France, England, Italy and Germany, in order to make it clear that this reception was prevalent throughout Europe.

The first object is an important document for the birth of philhellenism, long before the proclamation of the Revolution of 1821.

This is a motion submitted in 1815 by François de Chateaubriand, Member of the French Parliament (Chambre des Pairs de France). This proposal was debated at the meeting of 9 April 1816 and approved by a vote. The document was printed in 1816 by the publisher P. Didot.


The draft resolution submitted in 1815 by François de Chateaubriand, Member of the French Parliament (SHP collection).


This proposal, submitted by Chateaubriand to the King, refers to the “barbaric forces” (Ottoman Empire) and the slavery status of Christians. The paper describes the problems faced by Greek slaves. This text is the first official political initiative in Europe in favor of the Greeks, and is based on the common Christian faith of the peoples of Europe with the Greeks.

The text reads: “It is about claiming human rights and erasing […] of the shame of Europe”.

According to the draft resolution: “His Majesty is humbly asked to order his Foreign Minister to write to all the royal courts in Europe, in order to enter into general negotiations with the Barbaric Powers, to ask these forces to respect the flags of European nations and to put an end to the slavery of Christians”.

This proposal was accepted by the House of Peers and was recorded as the first political intervention of a great power in Europe in favor of the Greeks who were at that time under Ottoman control.

It is worth noting that the dominant element for the political world to be interested in Greece was the common Christian faith and the sufferings of Christian slaves in the Ottoman Empire.

In 1821 the Greek Revolution broke out. Again the first stimuli that attract public interest have to do with the common Christian faith and the sufferings of Christians. The press and art record the massacres, looting and suffering of Christians. One of the first events that shocks the public opinion, and essentially inaugurates the philhellenic movement, is the martyrdom of Patriarch Gregory V.


19th century painting, probably from England, on the subject of the martyrdom of Patriarch Gregory V (SHP collection).

Friedrich Campe (publisher, 1825-35), Turkish savagery in Chios (a church is on fire in the background, in the right a priest is murdered). Hand-coloured copper engraving (SHP collection).


From the beginning of the Greek Revolution, and throughout the 1820s, the European and American press constantly highlighted the sufferings of Christians and presented the struggle for the liberation of the Greeks as a struggle for the liberation of Christians enslaved by the Turkish Muslims. Very indicatively, we present articles from three newspapers, from the archive of more than 1000 newspapers of this period, which form part of the SHP collection.


ALLGEMEINE PREUSSISCHE STAATS ZEITUNG, dated June 30, 1821. Among other things, it states: “An order for the execution of Christian clergy and the destruction of churches is being carried out in many cities. The assassination of the Patriarch turns the clergy and the people of Thessaly against Omer Pasha. The archbishop himself loses his life in the battles” (SHP collection).

Journal des Debats, August 24, 1821. It reports: “The Russian ambassador to Constantinople called on the Ottoman authorities to stop the killing of innocent Greeks, the disarmament of Muslims, to rebuild the vandalized churches and to respect the Christian religion. In the last battle in Moldova, the besieged Greeks fought to the last in a monastery”. Here, too, the persecution of Christians and their self-sacrifice is projected as a central emotional element (SHP collection).

SCHWAEBISCHER MERKUR newspaper, February 19, 1824. Among other things, it refers to the siege of Messolonghi where 20,000 Turks could not defeat 500 Greeks, and it highlights a characteristic strange coincidence. “An old big spring appeared in Messolonghi with plenty of fresh water when the first bullet of the besiegers fell on the church of the archangel. A fact worthy of attention”. The description clearly implies that the God of Christians has taken a position in favor of the struggle of the Greeks (SHP collection).


From the moment the Greek Revolution broke out, another important issue that makes its appearance, is the blessing that Greek fighters receive from priests and bishops. These scenes constitute one of the most popular subjects of philhellenic art during the Revolution. Here are two examples from France and Italy, of issues that circulated significantly in Europe.


Philhellenic plate from France, made of porcelain, of the early 19th century, from the factory “P. & H./Choisy”, on the blessing of the Greek fighters (SHP collection).

Lithograph based on the painting by the Italian painter Ludovico Lipparini (1800-1856). “The German Archbishop supported the flag of the cross on the ruins of Kalavrita on March 25, 1821. To His Majesty the King of Greece Othon I, in a presumption of deepest respect, Ed. Joseph Antonellis D. H. A. A. (Venice, Giuseppe Antonelli, d. 1838)”. The painting was destroyed in a bombing raid on Milan on February 14, 1943 (SHP collection).


Another relevant issue that dominates the philhellenic art, has to do with the oath of the Greek fighter. This oath always takes place in front of a cross. The Greek fighter swears, in the presence of his family or in the presence of his fiancée. These scenes always remind us that the Greeks are fighting as Christians in order to free themselves from the Muslim Turkish tyrant. This was the central message that moved the public in Europe.


The oath on the cross of the young fighter. Attributed to Michel-Philibert Genod (1796-1862). Early 19th century (SHP collection).

The oath on the cross of the young fighter. The theme is imprinted in France on a box, plate and soup bowl. Early 19th century (SHP collection).


This issue of the common Christian faith is projected in the public opinion on all the occasions during all the emblematic events. For example, at the great art exhibition in the Paris Salon in 1822, a painting by the French painter Charles-Edouard Le Prince, known as Crespy-Le Prince (1784-1851), is presented to the public. The painting is entitled “Inspiration d’un prêtre grec pendant l’orage” (Inspiration of a Greek priest during the storm). The Greek priest holds in his hand the 103rd psalm of David which refers to the greatness of God. This painting is typical of the messages that the public asked to receive in order to side with the Greeks.


Painting by the French painter Charles-Edouard Le Prince, known as Crespy-Le Prince (1784-1851). The painting has the theme “Inspiration d’un prêtre grec pendant l’orage” (Greek priest’s inspiration during the storm) (SHP collection).


Another interesting theme that was widely projected during the Revolution, and was reflected in the philhellenic art, has to do with the history of the Greek Deacon. This story is the subject of a poem by the French poet Casimir Delavigne. The figure was imprinted in a work by Antoine (Tony) Johannot (1803-1852), on which various art objects were based, such as the mantel clock that follows.


Bronze mantle clock of the early 19th century, with the theme of the Greek Deacon (SHP collection).

Victor Hugo, “Les Orientales”, 1829 (SHP collection).


Of particular interest is the poetic collection “Les Orientales”, of Victor Hugo, which refers exclusively to the Greek Revolution and is published in Paris in the context of his solidarity with the suffering Greek people, promoting the philhellenic spirit in Europe. It publishes the revolutionary actions of the Greeks for freedom from the Turkish yoke, choosing to highlight events that will move more, such as ancient Greece, the Christian faith, the siege of Messolonghi, the achievements of Canaris and Botsaris, etc.

“To Greece, forward, oh friends! Revenge and freedom!”

Victor Hugo calls Greece the mother of western civilization:

“(…) Greece of Lord Byron, Greece of Homer
You sweet sister, you our mother”.

The following excerpt presents Canaris saying:

“My brothers, if I return alive, Messolonghi will be spared,
I promise to build a new church of Jesus Christ.
If I die and fall in the dark night of Death
From which no one can return
And if all my blood is spilled, what is left of it
You will bury in free soils my ashes
Under the sun’s light, the clear sky, you dig my tomb”

Finally, the magnificent painting that follows, by the great German painter Paul Emil Jacobs (1802-1866), summarizes in one image the central messages of the philhellenic art. The Turk has killed the father, looted and burned the church from which he has stolen the sacred utensils and kidnapped the mother as a slave. The son has his gun with a single bullet, and therefore the hope to neutralize his tyrant. The scene has as its background ancient columns and the burning temple, and it marries the ancient Greek with the Christian element. This was the central message of philhellenic propaganda during the Greek Revolution, but also for almost the entire 19th century.


Painting by the great German painter Paul Emil Jacobs (1802-1866) (SHP collection).


In most churches of all denominations in Europe and the USA, sermons and fundraisers in favor of the Greeks took place. Many priests were members of Philhellenic committees with significant activity, and many missionaries arrived in Greece and supported the Greeks and the development of national education.

Very indicatively, we present below some examples.

Bastholm, Hans (1774-1856), Danish priest who supported the struggling Greeks by organizing (banned) fundraisers through the newspaper Vestsjællandske Avis.

Holstein, Frederik Adolph, count, Dane Philhellene, he publicly argued that the philhellenic fundraisers, such as those organized by the priest Hans Bastholm, should not be illegal. In 1827 he published a 24-page publication entitled “The case of the Greeks in Denmark. A bold observation”. The proceeds of the sale were intended for the support of the Greeks.

Christian VIII or Christian Frederick (1786-1848), King of Denmark (1839-1848) and King of Norway in 1814, responded anonymously to a fundraiser by the Danish priest Hans Bastholm, contributing 500 thalers. He was also a subscriber of the philhellenic newspaper «Graekervennen» (the Philhellene).

Bendell, Gregory, American Philhellene, pastor at St. Andrew Church in Philadelphia with philhellenic activity.

Beskow B. von, Swede Philhellene, he composed the cantata “Sweden to the children of Greece” which was played in a concert organized by Swedish Philhellenes in a church in the Ladugord area (17.06.1826).

Crussel, Swedish Philhellene, composer of the “Hymn to the Liberation of Greece”, which was included in a concert at the church in the Ladugord area organized by Swedish Philhellenes. (17.06.1826).

Edwards Dwight, Sereno (1786-1850), pastor of Park Street Church in Boston, he delivered an address, entitled “The Greek Revolution” on April 1, 1824 in favor of the Greek Struggle.

Gender, a German Philhellene, priest from Augsburg; he kept in touch with the English Philhellene Warren, who was informing him on the course of the Greek Revolution.

Hildebrandt, Johann Andreas Christoph (1763-1846), a priest in Halberstadt, preacher in Welferlingen and author of novels. He wrote the philhellenic work “Die Sklavin in Anatolis Wüste” (The Slave in the Desert of the East, 1822), which refers to the Turkish atrocities and the desire of the Greeks for an uprising.

Keun, Bernard (1733-1801), Dutch pastor of the Lutheran Church in Smyrna, who influenced the Greek Enlightener Adamantios Korais, whose studies he financed. Keun taught Korais Latin and encouraged him in the study of ancient classics.

Münter, Friedrich Christian Carl Heinrich (1761-1830), Danish Lutheran bishop, member of the Ionian Academy, he corresponded with Orthodox priests to give them courage during the Greek Revolution.

Parkes Cadman, Dr. S., president of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, in his speeches he referred to the moral obligation of America to help the struggling Greeks.

White, William, bishop, president of the Philhellenic Committee in Philadelphia.


Friedrich Campe (publisher, 1825-35) warm welcome of Philhellenes in Greece. Hand-coloured copper engraving (SHP collection).


A thorough study of the basic expressions of philhellenic art and movement before and during the Greek Revolution, confirms that the common Christian faith was one of the cornerstones of the philhellenic movement and the important help that the Greeks received during their struggle.




Athens – On January 14, 2021, U.S. Ambassador to Greece Geoffrey Pyatt announced in an interview with the Greek national broadcaster ERT the launch of U.S. Mission Greece’s year-long campaign to commemorate Greece’s Bicentennial entitled “USA & Greece:  Celebrating 200 Years of Friendship.”  The campaign will include educational and cultural events across Greece that will highlight our two countries’ historic relationship and the ties that bind us:  democracy, partnership, and shared values.

The “USA & Greece: Celebrating 200 Years of Friendship” campaign will support this effort through programs designed to convey U.S respect for ancient Greek ideals of democracy that were an inspiration at the founding of our country and highlight the role American Philhellenes played in Greece’s fight to establish their country.  It will also celebrate the strong people-to-people ties between the U.S. and Greece over the last 200 years, and our commitment to our present-day strategic partnership.

Speaking about the campaign, Ambassador Pyatt said, “U.S.-Greek relations are the best they’ve been in modern history.  Our friendship began during Greece’s war for independence and Greece’s 2021 bicentennial is an opportunity to celebrate this history and the values of liberty and democracy our peoples have defended for over 200 years.”



You may watch the video here.


The program “USA & Greece: Celebrating 200 Years of Friendship”, supports the following action of the Philhellenism Museum.

The “American Philhellenism” Exhibition at the Museum of Philhellenism:  a special exhibition entitled “The American Philhellenism” at the Museum of Philhellenism in Athens, featuring unique artifacts and historical documents capturing the birth and evolution of Philhellenism, U.S. support for the Greek Revolution, and the impact of Greek culture on the values, institutions, artistic and architectural expressions in the U.S.

For more information about “USA & Greece: Celebrating 200 Years of Friendship”, follow us:  @eefshp, @USEmbassyAthens and #USAGreece2021.


Philhellene lady offers affection to a young Greek, painting of unknown painter, early 19nth century (SHP collection)


Philhellenism has been, without a doubt, an important and multifaceted phenomenon that contributed decisively to the founding of the new Greek state, justifying the struggle of the Greeks for Freedom and Independence. The struggles and the ordeal of the enslaved Greek people moved the western world, and resonated even in remote places of the world, wherever there were similar demands.

Although historians are able to map the influence of the Greek case on specific collective (national or social) groups to a large extent, it remains a fascinating mystery, how the demand for Greek independence affected human lives in a personal level. How far did this influence travel, and which people were affected by it? Could a future historian ever record the vibrations that this rare circumstance individually caused to human souls?

We know, of course, that philhellenism was a dynamic movement that moved different people, regardless of their gender or nationality. Organized philhellenism motivated citizens to adopt classic values ​​and ideals, and take actions and initiatives in this direction. These processes have given many citizens the confidence and maturity for more claims within the societies to which they belonged. A valuable legacy of the philhellenic movement is that it allowed people with different social and national backgrounds to meet on the basis of a common and noble vision. Prominent citizens participated in the philhellenic committees established in Europe and the USA with the power to influence political and economic developments. At the same time, however, people from lower social strata or vulnerable groups also participated in the same committees.

It is particularly interesting to consider the influence of the Greek issue and the philhellenic movement on the participation of women in public, their right to intervene in society, and their claim of an equal role.

In this context, the philhellene women were actively involved in the local committees, collaborating exemplary with their male companions. In fact, in many places they pioneered by claiming the establishment of autonomous, women’s philhellenic committees. These historical developments are very important. Suffice it to say that in year 2021 women are still making their claims in society, which gain more and more public space. Despite the fact that their achievements have reached a better level in the western world, let us not forget that in a large part of the world, women still need empowerment, equal rights and respect.

With this information in mind, it seems easier to think about the social conditions a woman in the early 19th century had to live in. The courageous, philhellene women in the West had to confront conservative political powers, influenced by the spirit of the Holy Alliance. Moreover, they had to face all prejudices against women, in an era of significant gender inequality. At the same time, the enslaved Greek women were experiencing a harsh reality. They and their children were exposed to all kinds of violence and misery; they were often traded in Turkish slave markets, or they had to fatally resist. Let us remember the heroic women of Zalongo, who committed suicide, jumping from a cliff to avoid slavery.

Philhellenism was a supranational movement, which united people of different nationalities. A typical case was the one of the philhellenic volunteers: French, Germans, Poles, Italians, English, Swiss, etc. came and fought together in Greece under the same flag, while a short time ago, these same people had been found in warring factions on the battlefields of Europe. In Greece they achieved a personal and a collective transcendence.

The female philhellenism was also supranational. Thus, Greek women who knew about the existence of philhellenes in parts of the western world, turned to them for help, e.g. the appeal made by 31 Greek women in 1825, under the Greek female intellectual Evanthia Kairis (1799–1866). In this appeal to the “female friends of Greece” in America, they express their relief, that men and women, who understand their sufferings, exist in this world; in contrast to those Europeans who “turn a blind eye” to the massacres, poverty and misery that plague Greece. The experiences of motherhood, the protection of children, the responsibility to secure their future and the Homeland are points of identification for women of different educational level, social and ethnic origin. And women sure have the power to influence situations. Manto Mavrogenous (1796-1848) sends a letter to the Greek women of Paris, asking them to “turn to the deeper truths that govern humanity”, and to influence the men of France. Through the British officer and Philhellene, Blaquiere, she also sends a letter to the English Philhellenes, asking for their intervention to create an asylum for women and orphans in Euboea.


Manto Mavrogenous (1796-1848)


There were many women in the western world, who were moved by the Greek issue. There were definitely much more than the ones, whose names survived up to this day. At this point, we should take a look at the most important Philhellene women and the mark they left on historical developments.

First of all, the attempts to support the Greeks are dated before the outbreak of the revolution in February 1821. Many women with brilliant personalities pioneered their actions during the pre-revolutionary period and familiarized the public with the Greek issue.

A lady of the French High society, who was famous for her dynamic personality and liberal ideas, was Madame de Staël (Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein, 1766-1817), a French writer and philhellene, who became associated with Lord Byron.


Madame de Staël (Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein, 1766-1817)


Other important women contributed to the preparation of Greek revolutionary operations against the Ottoman Empire.

Two emblematic Philhellene women are the Greek Cypriot Elisabeth Santi Loumaki-Chenier and Roxandra Stourtza.

The intellectual Elisabeth Santi Loumaki – Chenier (1729-1808) was born in Constantinople. She was married to diplomat and merchant, Louis Chénier, and held a central position in the intellectual world of Paris. Her salon was a meeting point of the intellectual world of the French capital in the early 19th century; the fermentations that led to the establishment of the “Hôtel Hellénophone”, the first secret pre-revolutionary organization aiming at the liberation of Greece, took place under the guidance of Loumaki- Chenier. The president of the Hotel was the great French philhellene, Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier (1752-1817), ambassador of France to the Ottoman Empire (1784-1792) and author of “Voyage pittoresque sur la Grece”. Athanasios Tsakalov (1790-851), one of the three founders of the patriotic Friendly Society, was trained in this organization. The “Hôtel Hellénophone”, aimed to recruit new members, and even to send weapons to Greece to prepare for the expected revolution. Loumaki -Chenier was the mother of two famous French poets, the neoclassical poet André Chenier (1762-1794) and Joseph Chenier (1764-1811).


Elisabeth Santi Loumaki – Chenier (1729-1808)


Another bright Greek woman of aristocratic origin played a similar role, and ten years later she transformed her own salon into the headquarters, where the developments and strategic decisions of the Friendly Society took place. Her name was Elizabeth Ypsilantis (1768-1866) and was the mother of Alexandros and Dimitrios Ypsilantis. The final decision for the start of the Greek Revolution was made in her salon, and even the emblematic proclamation “Battle for faith and homeland” was drafted there. Before Alexandros Ypsilantis signed it, he asked his mother to dispose of all the family real estate for the support of the Greek Struggle. And when she accepted, he kissed her hand. In fact, she completed the announcement by noting in the text in her honor before signing “I osculate my mother’s hand”.


Elizabeth Ypsilantis (1768-1866)


Many other important Greeks and philhellenes followed.

Roxandra Stourtza (1786-1844), was born in Constantinople. She became the master of ceremonies at the court of the Russian Tsar Alexander I (1777-1825) and his wife Elizabeth (1779-1826). She became associated with Ioannis Kapodistrias, but married, at the tsar´s urging, the German count of Edling (1771-1841), Minister and Marshal of the Grand Duke of Saxony-Weimar, as Alexander did not approve of a marriage with Kapodistrias. The fact did not prevent her from developing an important, intellectual and political relationship with Kapodistrias, following him and the Tsar to the Congress of Vienna (1815). There she met Anthimos Gazis and the Metropolitan of Hungary, Ignatius, and they decided to establish the pro-revolutionary “Philomous Society”. Its targeting by the Austrian Foreign Minister Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) was a matter of time. Stourtza was not intimidated by Metternich’s decision to disband the Society´s office in Vienna, and she continued her actions by supporting Greek students in the city through collecting fundraisers. With several of her initiatives she tried to mobilize the international public opinion in favor of the Greek Cause. After the outbreak of the Greek Revolution, she treated the persecuted Greeks who arrived in Odessa in Russia, with the valuable help of Elizabeth, who had also offered significant sums as a subscriber of the Philomous (Friends of Music) Society of Vienna.


Roxandra Stourtza (1786-1844)


In the pre-revolutionary time, another woman became associated with the Russian Tsar Alexander I; the brave philhellene from the Baltic, Barbara Julie de Krüdener (1764–1824). Krüdener was a Protestant missionary of aristocratic descent. She became friends with Alexander I and influenced  him decisively in establishing the Holy Alliance. It is reported, that the choice of this name was her own suggestion. She supported the establishment of the Holy Alliance, believing that it would protect and support the independence of the Greeks. In 1821, having realized that the attitude of the Holy Alliance was not philhellenic, she went to St. Petersburg in order to influence the neutral Alexander to take a public stance in favor of the Greeks. Alexander’s annoyance by Krüdener’s insistence on persuading him was such, that he eventually exiled her to Crimea. Krüdener’s ardent philhellenism was the reason of losing her social position, her privileges, her wealth – even her personal relationship with the tsar.


Barbara Julie de Krüdener (1764–1824)


Alexander’s wife, tzarina Elizabeth, was not the sole example of a royal member with philhellenic attitude. Caroline von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1768 – 1821) was the wife of King George IV of the United Kingdom, and a philhellene, who strongly supported the Philomus Society and its aims. She visited Athens in 1816, where she organized archaeological excavations.


Caroline von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1768-1821)


Also impressive is the activity developed by Princess Sophia Albertina of Sweden (Sophia Maria Lovisa Fredrika Albertina, 1753 – 1829), the sister of the Swedish king. After the outbreak of the Greek Revolution, she founded a women’s philhellenic committee, turning the palace into a center of philhellenism. Hundreds of women rushed there to give money and support the Greek Struggle for liberation.


Sophia Albertina of Sweden (1753-1829)


Even the princess Louise Marie Thérèse Charlotte Isabelle d’Orléans (1812-1850), and the whole royal house had sided with the Greeks. In a single fundraiser the Princess of Orléans offered 3,000 Francs in favor of the Greeks.


Louise Marie Thérèse Charlotte Isabelle d’Orléans (1812-1850)


The ladies of the aristocracy in Europe helped the Greek Cause in various ways. Nurtured by classical education, they saw modern Greeks as worthy descendants of Leonidas and Miltiades. In the salon of the Danish artist Karen Margrethe “Kamma” Rahbek (1775-1829), the literary interests of the Danish society intersected with discussions about philhellenism.


Karen Margrethe “Kamma” Rahbek (1775-1829)


The same example was followed by many noble and cultured ladies in many capitals of Europe. They turned their salons into a meeting place for philhellenes, and pioneered various charitable activities. The developments that took place there were crucial for the moral and material support of the Greeks. The philhellenic activity of these bright women was not inferior to that of the men.

Thus, Anna Eynard – Lullin (1793-1868), a Swiss painter and philanthropist, who is better known as the wife of the great politician and banker Jean-Gabriel Eynard (1775-1863), emerged with her own action as a warm philhellene. She founded a philhellenic women’s committee in Geneva. She organized philhellenic performances, receptions and concerts, and systematically raised money and collected various items for the Greek revolutionaries.


Anna Eynard – Lullin (1793-1868)


The philhellene women were seeking some models of a Greek heroine in the Greek Revolution, and found them mainly in two emblematic Greek women.

The first was the forceful, driven fighter, Laskarina Bouboulina (1771-1825). She was a wealthy woman who had experienced many difficulties. She was orphaned by her father, and was twice a widow. In 1819 she was initiated in the Friendly Society in Constantinople, and took an active part in the Revolution in 1821. She offered a lot of money, ammunition, ships, and even her son, who was killed in a battle with the Turks.


Laskarina Bouboulina (1771-1825).


The second was Manto Mavrogenous (1796-1840), who was distinguished by her education, her mental strength and her selflessness. She was born in Trieste, where her family lived. Her father was Nikolaos Mavrogenis, a member of the Friendly Society, in which he initiated Manto in 1820. She donated her property to the Revolution, equipped the Greek forces, while she also participated in operations. At the same time, she sends many letters to Europe, aiming to influence the public opinion and to direct the action of the Philhellenes. The following is a typical excerpt from her letter to English Philhellenes (1824-1825) “It is not enough for us, ladies, to be enthusiastic. The centuries of tyranny have exhausted us financially. Heroism is useless when it lacks the necessary organic means to manifest, money, weapons, ammunition, food, clothes. And if I dare to invoke your sympathy, my purpose is to secure an asylum for the abused women and children in Euboea, which through your mediation we would find a way to regain and dedicate to the memory of the women of England…”.

Interesting is the fact that each one of them has a completely different character. Manto is a young, noble and delicate figure. On the contrary, Bouboulina is a middle-aged woman, with a masculine behavior and harsh characteristics. A common point for them is their wealthy background and the possession of a large fortune. They also shared the same faith in the vision that Greece would be free in the end.

This dynamic dipole is projected as a model in the western public opinion.

Philhellenism is now becoming the dominant “trend” in Europe and the philhellene women are organizing lectures and fundraisers. They also send missions with clothing in Greece. They offer their volunteer work to the committees. They enthusiastically offer, sometimes anonymously, high sums of money for the purposes of the committees, even their jewelry! They sew clothes and flags for the philhellenes who go voluntarily to Greece, in order to support them morally and emotionally, and they develop communication with these men, while they are in Greece.

The very active French philhellene, Madame Delcombre, was the head of the philhellene committee in Paris. She prepares a very nice silk flag (embroidered by herself), which she offers to the French Philhellene cavalry officer, Auguste Michel Marie Étienne Régnault (or Régnaud) de St-Jean d’Angely (and later Marshal of France), during a ceremony. The French Philhellene vows to constantly bring this flag to the battlefields. To Régnault’s great sorrow, the flag is lost in the battle of Karystos.

Another famous, beautiful Lady of the European aristocracy is Madame de Récamier (Jeanne Françoise Julie Adélaïde, 1777 – 1849). She was also a member of the Philhellenic Committee in Paris. Mrs. Recamier corresponds with the Philhellene French officer Olivier Voutier (1796-1877), while he is in Greece.


Madame de Récamier – Jeanne Françoise Julie Adélaïde (1777 – 1849)


Récamier collected and published Voutier´s long letters, in which Voutier describes the Greek customs and traditions, historical sites and battle scenes, under the title “Letters for Greece”. Proceeds from the sale of the book, which moved the French in favor of the Greek struggle, were intended for the philhellenic committee. Récamier was an influential figure in the philhellenic movement. Her love for Greece and the Greeks was sparked by her relationship with the romantic writer, politician and philhellene François-René de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), and was maintained throughout the Greek struggle. Récamier supported the Greek Revolution with large financial offers from its own resources, as well as from fundraising revenues.

In France, philhellenism and “graecomania” reach such a level that they influence fashion: “Robes de dame a la Bobeline” are inspired by the heroic Bouboulina. The costume of the philhellenes incorporate Greek scarfs; it does not seem unnatural, when an aristocratic lady appears in a Greek costume during public events. In a concert given in Paris conducted by Rossini himself for the purposes of the Philhellenic Committee (8/4/1826), the musicians decorate the instruments with blue and white ribbons, the gentlemen wear blue and white armbands, the ladies decorate their gowns with the Greek colors. After the concert, the ladies lead the philhellenic fundraiser.

The public manifestation of philhellenic feelings was, to a certain extent, a sign of the level of cultivation or sensitivity of a woman or a man of the time. It would be unfair to assume that the reasons related to a philhellenic stance were of a “superficial” nature. Suffice it to say that the most powerful forces in Europe were, during the first phase of the Greek Revolution, neutral or indifferent towards the Greek issue, while many were influenced by the spirit of Metternich, who was opposed to movements in Europe. Many Philhellenes acted, especially until 1824-1825, under the fear of being followed by the Metternich police. One such bright case is the Polish patriot Emilia Sczaniecka (1804-1896), who acted in the city of Poznan, and was  identified with the Greek struggle for Independence from the very beginning. She was the “Bubulina of Poland”. She founded the “Committee for Aid to the Greeks” and organized fundraisers for the orphans of the fighters, as well as for the care of the wounded. The people who were involved in the Greek issue, acted many times at the risk of their lives and with a personal cost.


Emilia Sczaniecka (1804-1896)


The buying (thus liberation) of Greeks from slave markets, and the adoption of orphaned children from Greece, were another two difficult fields of action for which the Greek women were interested. They required personal involvement, as well as emotional and material cost. The adoptions of Greek children in particular, who were offered a second life in Europe or the USA, were clearly events that transformed the lives of those involved forever. And for that they are deeply moving to this day.

The presence and participation of women in literary philhellenism is also worth mentioning. Its most famous female representative is none other than the brilliant Mary Shelley (1797-1851) from England, the companion of Percy Shelley (1792-1822) and author of the famous work Frankenstein (1818). Shelley befriended Alexandros Mavrokordatos and the so-called “Pisa circle” around Metropolitan Ignatius. Percy Shelley’s “Hellas”, is dedicated to his “turban-wearing friend”, Alexandros Mavrokordatos.


Mary Shelley (1797-1851)


Shelley was identified with the Greek struggle for Freedom and Independence from the very beginning and had a decisive influence in shaping the philhellenic attitude of her close friend, Lord Byron (1788-1824). She learned Greek and along with her husband envisioned a free Greece, where they planned to move. Having experienced some traumatic events, such as the loss of her children, of her partner, Percy Shelley, from drowning, and a little later, of her close friend, Byron, from illness in Messolonghi, Shelley wrote the philhellenic science fiction novel “The Last Man”. In a nightmarish, dystopian future, the Greeks are trying to retake Constantinople, when an epidemic originating in the city devastates the future world. The author describes a group of Philhellenes who are fighting for the Greek Cause: the work is an allegory for her own people who got lost so early and so unjustly.

The Greek Case inspired many female artists in their work and actions. The English historian, writer and poet, Agnes Strickland (1796-1874), wrote the poem “Demetrios”, inspired by her love for the Greeks.


Agnes Strickland (1796-1874)


The poet Amable Tastu (1798–1885) from France wrote a poem about the Psara island, while the poet Delphine Gay or de Girardin (1804-1855) donated money to philhellenic fundraisers.


Amable Tastu (1798–1885)

Delphine Gay or de Girardin (1804-1855)


In Germany, one of the first women to speak out in favor of the Greeks was the author Amalia von Imhoff-Helvig (1776-1831). Imhoff-Helvig was a student of Goethe and Schiller, as well as a friend of the philhellene poet Wilhelm Müller, who belonged to the circle around the Berlin-based literary newspaper Gesellschafter. She wrote and published philhellenic poems from the beginning of the Revolution. In 1826 a volume of poems in support of the Greeks was published in Berlin.


Amalia von Imhoff-Helvig (1776-1831)


The author Friederike Brun (1765-1835) published philhellenic poems as early as 1821.


Friederike Brun (1765-1835)


The “German Sappho”, Louise Brachmann (1777-1822), wrote and published philhellenic poems under the title “Griechenland”.


Louise Brachmann (1777-1822)


In 1824, Baroness Julie Charlotte Dorothea Therese von Richthofen (1785-1840), wrote the philhellenic “Helas und Helianor”, which referred to the vision of the liberation of Greece, the Greeks students in Germany and participation in the Friendly Society. In her work “Graf Branzka”, written in 1829, Wilhelmine von Alben refers to Alexandros Ypsilantis and the uprising in Greece.

The interest in the Greek revolution remained alive also later, during the Cretan Revolt (1866-1869). The German composer, author and educator Johanna Kinkel (Maria Johanna Mockel, 1810-1858), who participated in the 1848 revolution, composed the philhellenic work “Hymne auf den Tod des Marco Botzaris” (Hymn for the death of Markos Botsaris, 1843). She was the wife of the philhellene evangelical theologian, Gottfried Kinkel (1815-1882), author of the philhellenic poem “Schlachtengesang der Kandioten”, which he wrote about the Cretan issue.


Johanna Κinkel (Maria Johanna Mockel, 1810- 1858)


During the first years of the new Greek state, the philhellenes tried to support the efforts to create some necessary structures for the new state´s operation. The American-French philhellene, Sophie de Marbois-Lebrun (1785-1854), better known as the Duchess of Plaisance, had supported the military needs of the Greek national struggle. She continued her social contribution in the first years of the Greek state, by taking care e.g. of the education of daughters of revolution fighters.


Sophie de Marbois-Lebrun (1785-1854)


The creation of educational infrastructure in the emerging Greek state, and the fight against illiteracy in Greece, was the main concern of American, Christian missions in Greece. Emphasis was placed on improving the girls’ education, and their overall level. The American missionary Frances Maria Mulligan Hill (1799-1884), went to Greece in 1839 with her husband, John Henry Hill, and founded schools in Athens.


Frances Maria Mulligan Hill (1799-1884)


Emilia Field Brewer founded and ran, together with her husband Josiah Brewer, a Greek school in Izmir, Asia Minor.


Emilia Field Brewer


The Cretan question inspired the revival of the philhellenic movement, in which women were again present. Anna Eynard – Lullin, who has been on the side of the Greeks since the beginning of the revolution, continued to support the Cretans with the Swiss women’s committee. Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910), wife of the leading American philhellene, Samuel Gridley Howe (1801-1876), co-founded with her husband the „Greek Relief Committee” in Boston and supported the Greek Struggle by raising money, food and clothing, even by writing a poem. She organized a musical event in Boston to support the Cretans, the proceeds of which (amounting to 2,000 thalers) were sent to Greece.


Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910)


She then came to Greece with her husband and children, and helped distribute money and clothing to Cretan refugees. In fact, one of her daughters married the Greek Anagnostopoulos. The German writer, Baroness Marie Espérance von Schwartz (1818-1899), better known by her pseudonym “Black Hope”, was a personal friend of the Italian national hero, Giuseppe Garibaldi. A significant number of Garibaldians had rushed to Crete to help the local population with their Struggle. In 1868 she located the last Garibaldians in a state of misery and did everything to help them. She wrote books about Crete and translated Cretan songs into German.


Marie Espérance von Schwartz (1818-1899)


Dora d´Istria, known as Elena Ghica (Eleni Ghica – Masalsky, 1828-1888) was born in Bucharest, Romania and was of Phanariotic descent, the daughter of Prince Michael Ghica. Her love for Greece and its culture is evident in her writings. She was interested in the national struggles of the Balkan peoples and was in favor of the Cretans during the revolution of 1866-69. She also supported that the Ionian Islands belonged to Greece, and considered their “Greekness” as indisputable. In a series of articles she opposed Fallmerayer’s anti-Hellenism. In recognition of her valuable services to the Greek nation, Eleni Ghica was declared as a “citizen of Greece”.


Dora d´Istria (Elena Ghica (Eleni Gika – Masalsky, 1828-1888)


Although much emphasis is often put on philhellenism as it manifested during the 1820s, it is worth mentioning once again that its contribution has been timeless. Acts of philhellenism defined historical developments throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. A philhellene who visited Greece at the end of the 19th century was the French Juliette Lambert-Adam (1836-1936), who came there in 1901 and befriended Dimitrios Vikelas. She wrote the play “Contemporary Greek Poets” and translated Greek plays.


Juliette Lambert-Adam (1836-1936)


As this brief review shows, the presence of women in the philhellenic movement was not superficial at all. In fact it has been very substantial and beneficial to the Greek Cause.

The above mentioned brave women and philhellenes offered a great work for our country. They confronted people with political power and proved themselves as equal companions of the male Philhellenes. They exerted a significant influence on men and women, influencing the course of history and political developments, at a time when women in the western world had gained neither the right to vote nor even equal participation in society with men. They connected with women from other countries and encouraged, morally and materially, the struggling efforts of Greeks. With their thoughts and actions they offered relief, care and hope to the Greeks. They took care of the education and care of girls in Greece, and through adoptions offered a second life to many Greek children, who were deprived of their parents and their future due to war.

For all the “maternal” services of every anonymous or famous philhellene to our Homeland, EEF and the Greeks express their sincere respect and their unlimited gratitude.


Sources – Bibliography

  • Βαγενά, Θάνου, Δημητρακοπούλου, Ευρυδίκης, Αμερικανοί Φιλέλληνες Εθελοντές στο Εικοσιένα, Εκδόσεις «μάτι», Κατερίνη 2017.
  • Κανελλόπουλος, Παναγιώτης, Λόρδος Βύρων, Εκδόσεις Διον. Γιαλλέλης, Αθήνα 1983.
  • Κεφαλίδου, Σεβαστή, Πώς βλέπουν οι Ευρωπαίοι Φιλέλληνες Περιηγητές και τεχνοκράτες τους υπόδουλους Έλληνες και την ελληνική πραγματικότητα (κοινωνία-πολιτική- παιδεία). Μεταπτυχιακή εργασία. Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης, 2005.
  • Λάσκαρι, Σ.Θ., Ο Φιλελληνισμός εν Γερμανία κατά την Ελληνικήν Επανάστασιν, Σύλλογος προς Διάδοσιν Ωφελίμων Βιβλίων, Εν Αθήναις, (χ.χ.).
  • Μαντά, Ελευθερία, Οι γαριβαλδινοί στην Κρητική Επανάσταση του 1866-69. 14/12/2017.
  • Μαράς, Κωνσταντίνος, Η Ελλάδα της Ευρώπης. Ο φιλελληνισμός ως πρώιμη μορφή ευρωπαικής ενσωμάτωσης. Εκδόσεις Γαβριηλίδης, Αθήνα 2015.
  • Ξηραδάκη, Κούλα, ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΙΔΕΣ ΙΙ, 03.04.2013.
  • Παπαδόπουλος, Στέφανος Ι., Το Μεσολόγγι και ο Φιλελληνισμός, ομιλία στο πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων για τον εορτασμό της 150ετηρίδος της Εθνικής Παλιγγενεσίας (27.11.1971), Ιωάννινα 1971.
  • Πλεμμένος, Γιάννης, Η καλλιτεχνική συμβολή των φιλελλήνων στην Επανάσταση του 1821: δημιουργοί, ρεπερτόριο, απήχηση, στο: Συλλογικό, ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΜΟΣ. ΤΟ ΕΝΔΙΑΦΕΡΟΝ ΓΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΕΛΛΑΔΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΕΣ ΑΠΟ ΤΟ 1821 ΩΣ ΣΗΜΕΡΑ, εκδόσεις Ηρόδοτος, 2015.
  • Τράκα, Θεολογία, Η Ελλάδα και ο Ελληνικός αγώνας για Ανεξαρτησία μέσα από τη γερμανόφωνη πεζογραφία της δεκαετίας του 20 κατά τον 19ο αιώνα, Διδακτορική διατριβή, Ιόνιο Πανεπιστήμιο, Κέρκυρα 2012.



German designer and lithographer, Wilhelm August Ferdinand Stademann, was born in Berlin in 1791 and died in Munich in 1873. He lived in Bavaria from 1810 onwards. Between 1832 and 1836 he was in Greece as an envoy of the Bavarian monarch Ludwig I (1786-1868), who had assigned him the role of advisor and secretary of Othon’s Regency (1818-1867). Then he returned to Bavaria. His son was the German landscape painter Adolf Stademann (1824-1895).

Before leaving for Greece, Stademann had worked with one of the oldest porcelain factories in Europe, KPM (Königliche Porzellan- Manufaktur: royal porcelain industry) from Berlin, for which he designed images which were imprinted on porcelain objects.


Amphora from the KPM porcelain factory with designs by Ferdinand Stademann. One side depicts the Prussian National Monument of the German Liberation Wars (Nationaldenkmal für die Befreiungskriege) in Kreuzberg, Berlin; the other side depicts Prussian King Wilhelm-Friedrich III. Berlin, 1823-1832, 62.7 x 30.8 cm.

Ferdinand Stademann, View of Berlin framed by 36 representations of public buildings in Berlin, Potsdam and Charlottenburg (Ansicht Berlins, sowie 36 öffentlicher Gebäude etc. in und bei dieser Hauptstadt, zu Potsdam und Charlottenburg) coloured lithography, ca. 1825, total dimensions: 45.7 x 64.3 cm.


While still in his homeland, Stademann had gained experience in realistic landscape- and monument painting. He developed those artistic abilities further in Greece. In 1835, in the midst of a terrible heat wave, according to Stademann, he completed in Athens a Panorama of the city (Panorama von Athen) after an assignment by King Othon. Its panorama extends to a length of six meters and faithfully depicts Pnyx, the hills of the Acropolis, Hymettus and Lycabettus, the mountains of Penteli, Parnitha and Egaleo, Ilissos, Piraeus, Korydallos, Aegina and Salamina, in ten colored, lithographic plates. Even Argolida is depicted. The artist tried to sketch the place where he was living and the people who live in it, in a simple – yet realistic manner. The point from which Stademann painted the Panorama was the hill of the Nymphs, the center of the Observatory building – as documented in a vignette of his work.


Vignette n.3 from «Panorama von Athen» (Vignette Nro. 3. das Nympheion, in der Nähe gesehen), which depicts Stademann himself while creating the panorama on the Hill of the Nymphs. Lithography by Ludwig Lange. From the edition: STADEMANN, August Ferdinand. Panorama von Athen. An Ort und Stelle aufgenommen und herausgegeben von Ferdinand Stademann… Deponirt… 15 April, 1840 bei dem Koniglichen bayerischen Ministerium des Innern, Munich, J.B. Kuhn, Franz Wild’schen Buchdruckerey, for the Author, and for R. Weigel, Leipzig, and Artaria & Fontaine, Mannheim, 1841 (SHP Collection).


The panorama offers a 360-degree record of the Attica Basin: a panorama of the capital of the new Greek state, which preserves the image that a traveler of Athens saw in the first post-revolutionary years to this day.


Ferdinand Stademann, View from the Hill of the Muses to Plaka and Lycabettus (Panoramablatt No.10). From the edition: STADEMANN, August Ferdinand. Panorama von Athen. An Ort und Stelle aufgenommen und herausgegeben von Ferdinand Stademann… Deponirt… 15 April, 1840 bei dem Koniglichen bayerischen Ministerium des Innern, Munich, J.B. Kuhn, Franz Wild’schen Buchdruckerey, for the Author, and for R. Weigel, Leipzig, and Artaria & Fontaine, Mannheim, 1841 (SHP Collection).


The panorama is accompanied by six vignettes with scenes of the Athenian landscape, some of which were designed by the German painter Ludwig Lange (1808 – 1868). Lange was also found as an envoy of Ludwig in Athens, where he collaborated with his teacher, painter Carl Rottmann (1797 – 1850), in the creation of landscapes. The vignettes depict, among others, the area of ​​Kaisariani, the area in Ilissos, where the Stadium and the royal palaces were later rebuilt. The panorama included a map, a list of subscribers with Othon´s name as well, and a text written in French and German. The publication of Stademann’s work piqued the interest of his contemporaries.


The fifth vignette from «Panorama von Athen» with a view of Athens from Plato’s Academy (Vignette Nro. 5. Athen von der Akademie aus) was designed by Ludwig Lange. From the edition: STADEMANN, August Ferdinand. Panorama von Athen. An Ort und Stelle aufgenommen und herausgegeben von Ferdinand Stademann… Deponirt… 15 April, 1840 bei dem Koniglichen bayerischen Ministerium des Innern, Munich, J.B. Kuhn, Franz Wild’schen Buchdruckerey, for the Author, and for R. Weigel, Leipzig, and Artaria & Fontaine, Mannheim, 1841 (SHP Collection).


Stademann belongs, along with Carl Rottmann (1797-1850), Ludwig Lange (1808-1868), Peter von Hess (1792-1871), the military men and painters Karl Wilhelm Freiherr von Heideck (1788-1861) and Karl Krazeisen ( 1794-1878), as well as the architect Leo von Klenze (1784-1864), to the distinguished German envoys of Ludwig I, in Greece, where they created elegant images and works, depicting the Revolution of 1821, the people of the time and the landscape of the liberated Greece as they saw it.

The creation of the Panorama of Athens by Ferdinand Stademann faithfully reconstructs the landscape of the capital, as it was in the first post-revolutionary years, and provides future generations with important historical evidence for the evolution of the Attic landscape through the centuries. SHP honors the painter Ferdinand Stademann for this contribution to Greece.


Sources – Bibliography

  • Βιγγοπούλου, Ιόλη (επιμέλεια), Η Ανάδυση και η Ανάδειξη Κέντρων του Ελληνισμού στα Ταξίδια των Περιηγητών (15ος – 20ος αιώνας). Ανθολόογιο από τη Συλλογή του Δημητρίου Κοντομηνά. Εκδόσεις Κότινος, Αθήνα 2005.
  • Λεκάκης, Γιώργος, Πανόραμα των Αθηνών, το 1835,


Othon, King of Greece. 19th century painting of Josef Stieler.


Othon (1815-1867), was a Bavarian prince and the first king of Greece, in 1833-1862. He was the only king who held the title “King of Greece”, since the following ones, from George I onwards, bore the title “King of the Greeks”[1].

He was born on 1 June 1815 in the Mirabell Palace in Salzburg, as Otto Friedrich Ludwig von Wittelsbach[2]. He was the second son of the great Philhellene heir to the Bavarian throne and later king of Bavaria, Ludwig I (1786-1868), who served as governor of Salzburg, and Theresia, duchess of Saxe-Hildburghausen (1792-1854)[3].

As the second son of the future king of Bavaria, Otto received a thorough education. He was taught by the philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1854)[4], the Philhellene historian Friedrich Thiersch (1784-1860)[5] ) and the cardinal, Archbishop of Eichstätt Johann Georg von Oettl (1794-1866)[6]. His education, as well as the action of his father, played a catalyst role for young Otto to adhere to Philhellenism.

After the Greek Revolution of 1821, the Greek state was recognized internationally, through the London Protocol[7], on March 10, 1830. Shortly afterwards, in September 1831, Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias was assassinated. Meanwhile, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha resigned from the candidacy to the Greek throne in June 1830[8]. So Greece suddenly found itself in a power vacuum. Then, at the urging of the Protecting Powers (England, France, Russia), the Fifth National Assembly, which convened in March 1832, decided to elect the Bavarian Prince Otto as king[9].

The Administrative Committee succeeded the Fifth National Assembly in April 1832 and exercised temporary governmental duties before the arrival of Othon in Greece. On August 24, 1832, a three-member committee was set up, composed by Kostas Botsaris, Dimitrios Plapoutas and Andreas Miaoulis, which undertook to travel to Munich and hand over the Greek throne to Othon[10].

Τhe Greek ambassador to Paris, Michael Soutzos (1784-1864), as well as the Swiss banker, diplomat, important Philhellene and eminent benefactor of the Greek Revolution Jean Gabriel Eynard (1775-1863), worked actively, for the election of Othon in the Greek throne[11], which, as it seems, Kapodistrias also wanted before his assassination[12].

In addition, the philhellenism of his father and King Ludwig I of Bavaria (who significantly strengthened the Struggle, both materially and morally[13]), and the action of the Philhellene Foreign Minister of Bavaria Count de Gise, played an important role in the selection of Othon[14].

The protocol for the election of Othon (April 25, 1832) as king, was signed in London by Henry John Temple, viscount Palmerston (England) and princes Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (France) and Christoph von Lieven (Russia). The text was sent for approval to King Ludwig I, who expressed some demands to accept the Greek throne by his son Othon[15].

The demands were to extend the borders of the kingdom to Volos and Arta, the annexation of Crete and Samos, to grant a loan of 60,000,000 French francs, to send to Greece three regiments of the Bavarian army (3,500 men), to operate a three-member regency until Othon’s adulthood, not to establish a constitution before the king takes office, so that he is not obliged to suspend it in case of crisis, and finally Othon’s title to be “King of Greece”[16].

The Protecting Powers rejected the first claim and accepted the remaining conditions, stating that the requested loan would be paid under their guarantee in three equal installments[17]. Two months later (June 17, 1832), the “final” borders of the newly formed kingdom were determined, and it acquired Acarnania, Aetolia and Fthiotis, with a border line starting from Kompoti (Amvrakikos Gulf), passing through the ridges of Othris and Timfristos and ending up in Maliakos[18].


Announcement of the Administrative Commission of Greece of March 23, 1832 (SHP collection).


A proclamation of the Administrative Commission of Greece of March 23, 1832, describes the situation in which Greece had fallen before Othon’s arrival. HELLENIC STATE, The Administrative Commission of Greece Declares, No. 3311 / The Administrative Commission, IOANNIS KOLETTIS / The Secretary of State D. CHRISTIDIS / Megara March 23, 1832, “GREEKS”. Text against division. “The philanthropic kings and patrons of Greece … explicitly condemn the illegality, they want our happiness … with the appointment of the Sovereign Principal of Greece … Rumeliotes! … Respect the property, the honour and the personal rights of your brothers in the Peloponnese … Military, those who are still outlaws, it is time for you to realize your mistake, the national Government welcomes you with open arms … our Sovereign Principal OTHON will be among us soon … ” .

Othon arrived in Greece, in Nafplio, on February 6, 1833, as a passenger of the British ship “Madagascar”. In his address to the Greek people upon his arrival, he emphasized that ‘’ascending the throne of Greece, I give the assurance to all, of conscientiously defending your religion, of faithfully observing the laws, of distributing justice to everyone and of safeguarding with the help of God against anyone, your complete independence, your freedoms and your rights”[19].


Peter von Hess. “The landing of King Othon in Nafplio”. National Gallery, Munich.

Painting portraying the Bavarian royal family examining a painting by Peter von Hess depicting the entry of King Otto of Greece into Napflio (SHP collection).


Because Otto was underage, a Regency Committee was formed. This instrument consisted of the following[20]:

  • Count Josef Ludwig von Armansperg (1787-1853), President.
  • Georg Ludwig von Maurer (1790-1872). Responsible for Public Education, Justice and Ecclesiastical Affairs.
  • Major General Karl Wilhelm von Heideck (1788-1861). One of the most distinguished Philhellenes, with military action during the Greek Revolution of 1821. Head of Military and Naval Affairs.

The above three, who constituted the Regency, were assisted by the following associate members[22]:

  • Karl von Abel, economist and jurist, alternate member of Council and secretary. He oversaw Finance.
  • Johann Baptist von Groenner (1781-1857), economist, overseeing Foreign Policy and overseeing Internal Administration.

On July 21, 1834, Otto’s father, King Ludwig I of Bavaria, recalled Maurer and Abel to Bavaria, who were replaced[23] by the following:

  • Ägid Ritter von Kobell,
  • Karl Groenner.

Until the capital was moved to Athens in 1834, Othon lived in Nafplio. In 1841 Othon moved from the Vouros residence (now the Museum of the City of Athens), to the Palace that was designed by Friedrich von Gärtner, which is today the Greek Parliament[24].

The ceremony of coming of age and proclamation of Othon as ‘’King of Greece with Mercy of God”, took place on June 1, 1835, and was celebrated with cannonades, military parade, lighting, games and an official dance. Athens and their inhabitants honored this day with all the means at their disposal. “It was a brilliant parade. From the church to the palace, the road was paved and decorated[25].


Personal seal of Othon (SHP collection).


The political scene in Greece was formed by fractions that were oriented towards the Protecting Powers and their political interests. The Russian Party expected the imminent dissolution of the Ottoman Empire soon. Given that a significant percentage of the Hellenic population remained enslaved, this party supported the so-called “Great Idea”. It is worth noting that the “Great Idea” was first proposed by the leader of the French Party and later Prime Minister, Ioannis Kolettis, during the National Assembly that voted for the 1844 constitution[26]. For the Philhellene king Otto, this prospect was tempting, and he immediately identified with it.

The British Party, on the other hand, relied on the power of Great Britain, which aimed at an alliance with Greece, especially in the naval sector. But it did not want to overthrow the Ottoman Empire, which was a bulwark to prevent Russian access to the Mediterranean[27].

The French Party also sought political influence and territorial gains in the Eastern Mediterranean. However, due to the prevailing situation, its policy failed[28].


Vouros Residence. Former Royal Palace. Now Museum of the City of Athens, Athens


Othon established a system of governance, based on Western standards, and the support of small agricultural property, as the basis of a social system. However, the unfavorable situation in the country did not allow the organization of a modern army of 9400 men, with the result that the defense of Greece relied, until at least the 1850s, on 6000 men, lightly equipped. This led many officers to oppose in general the policies of Othon[29]

The newly formed Greek state faced many problems. Much of the national land was mortgaged, or in the hands of few landlords. The guarantors France, Great Britain and Russia participated in the granting of a loan of 60 million francs to Greece. 3/4 were paid and out of this amount 12 million had to be paid to the Sublime Porte as compensation. The state deficit steadily increased until 1835, but in 1840 it was possible for the first time to present a balanced budget and start repaying the accumulated deficit[30].

Othon’s investment program was very ambitious and was financially supported by Greeks abroad and by his father, Ludwig I, as guarantor. Many projects relied on a long term design and yielded successful results decades later, especially in the field of education, with the main pillar being the then Othonean University (now the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens), which was founded in 1837[31].

In the end, Greece’s debts to Bavaria amounted to 1,933,333 Florins and 20 Kreuzers or 4,640,000 Drachmas. Without the last loan of one million forints (granted thanks to the actions of King Ludwig I of Bavaria), Greece would have to declare national bankruptcy. The non-repayment of the loan burdened the Greek-Bavarian relations until a negotiation led to a solution in 1881[32].

On November 22, 1836, Othon married Duchess Amalia of Oldenburg (1818-1875) in Oldenburg. Apart from Othon, she also began to play an active role in the country. Thus, she was significantly committed to the concerns of the citizens. The couple’s infertility became a major problem. With the constitution of 1844, the right of succession to the throne was extended to King Othon’s younger brother, Prince Adalbert (1828-1875) and his descendants. The next younger prince, Luitpold (1821-1912), refused to convert to the Orthodox doctrine in case of his succession to the throne. Othon had to accept as a condition that the successor to the throne should at least be converted to the Orthodox doctrine[33].


Amalia, Queen of Greece, painting of Josef Stieler, Wittelsbach Foundation, Munich.


In the dispute between Great Britain and Russia over influence in the Eastern Mediterranean, King’s Othon position was difficult. A large part of the population demanded the pursuit of a more dynamic policy, which, however, was difficult to implement due to the circumstances at the time[34].

When Greece tried to annex Crete around 1841, the British navy blocked the port of Piraeus[35]. This was repeated in 1850, with the so-called “Parkerika”[36]. This situation was repeated when Greece during the Crimean War in 1853, supported the revolutions for freedom, in Macedonia, Epirus and Thessaly[37]. The port of Piraeus and the capital were blocked, while the Greek Fleet was controlled by the Western Forces[38]. The king’s inability to face such foreign intervention weakened his position[39].

Moreover, the press in Germany expressed as of the beginning of Othon’s reign, doubts about the moral support towards the Greek state. Architect Ludwig Lange, on the other hand (who worked as a design teacher at a high school in Athens), spoke of falsified reports in Germany about what was happening in Greece[40].

In 1843 the lending to Greece had decreased, and this created dissatisfaction in the public administration, and in the citizens.This was one of the reasons for the coalition of the officers and politicians, which led to the movement of September 3, 1843, and the enactment of the Constitution of 1844[41].

Andreas Metaxas, the leader of the Russian Party, was then appointed prime minister[42]. He and all his successors, remained in office for a short time, something which reflected the violent disputes of the various parties that focused on the Protecting Powers[43]. This was followed by the Crimean War, where Othon planned the expansion of Greece to the north, at the expense of the Ottoman Empire. These moves annoyed the Protecting Powers, which again saw a Russian threat.

Eventually, Othon’s reign was overthrown by the coup of October 23, 1862. On the same day, Othon left Greece with Queen Amalia on the British ship “Scylla”[44], in order to avoid the division of the Greeks.

In his last official message, King Otto confirms his nobles and Philhellenism, or better now the ethos of a great Greek:


Convinced that after the recent events, which took place in various parts of the Kingdom and especially in the Capital, my further stay in Greece at that time could bring her inhabitants into a bloody turmoil, which would be difficult to overpower, I decided to leave from this place, which I have loved and still love, and to the prosperity of which for thirty years almost no care, no effort has been spared.

Avoiding all demonstrations, I had on my mind only the true interests of Greece and I tried my best to promote its material and moral development, drawing my particular attention to the impartiality of justice. When it came to political crimes against Me, I always showed the utmost leniency and oblivion;

Returning to the land of My birth, I am saddened by the calamities, when my beloved Greece is threatened by the new plot of things, and I ask the merciful God to always grant His grace to the fortunes of Greece’’.


The last official sermon of King Othon (SHP collection).


King Othon returned to Bavaria with his wife, and they settled in the residence of the former prince-bishop in Bamberg until their death. Each day, as a reminder of their love for Greece, they had set a time period in which only Greek would be spoken[45].

Despite the difficult financial situation, King Othon constantly helped Greece, sending anonymously financial aid. In fact, in 1866 he financed, entirely from his own resources, the sending of weapons to the Cretans, who had revolted against the Ottoman rule. Thus he proved once again not just his Philhellenism[46], but now his patriotism.

King Othon of Greece passed away on July 26, 1867 in Bamberg. He wanted to be buried with the traditional dress of Greece, the ‘’fustanella’’. He is buried next to Queen Amalia of Greece, in the crypt of the family tombs of the Bavarian dynasty, in the Theatinerkirche church, in the centre of Munich.

This great Greek undertook a particularly difficult mission at a young age, without having managed to gain the necessary experience. He undertook to build from scratch a new state that came from a long 400-year slavery. A state that started with minimal resources and many problems. He took care to unite the Greeks and to promote their common identity. That of the successors of ancient classical Greece. He designed the first institutions of the country, education and public health, and the first emblematic neoclassical buildings.

SHP honors the memory of King Othon of Greece, who, unlike his  father King Ludwig I of Bavaria, may not have been the experienced ruler (especially for a state created from zero), but he was a fair and selfless man, who proved his Philhellenism in practice and offered a lot to Greece.


King Othon of Greece, exiled to Bavaria, in 1865. Photo by Philippos Margaritis. National History Museum, Athens.



[1] Κωνσταντίνος (Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων), “Χωρίς Τίτλο”, εκδ. “Το Βήμα”, Αθήνα, 2015, α’ τόμος.
[2] Bower, Leonard – Bolitho, Gordon, “Othon I, King of Greece: A Biography”, εκδ. Selwyn & Blunt, Λονδίνο, 1939.
[3] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[4] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[5] Thiersch, Heinrich, “Friedrich Thiersch’s Leben (Aus seinen Briefen)”, εκδ. C.F. Winter, Λειψία, 1866, α’ τόμος.
[6] Weis, Anton, “Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie “, εκδ. Duncker & Humblot, Λειψία, 1887.
[7] Καποδίστριας, Ιωάννης, “Επιστολαί διπλωματικαί, διοικητικαί και ιδιωτικαί, γραφείσαι από 8 Απριλίου 1827 μέχρι 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 1831”, εκδ. Κωνσταντίνου Ράλλη, Αθήνα, 1841, γ’ τόμος.
[8] Fleming, David C., “John Capodistrias and the Conference of London (1828-1831)”, εκδ. Αριστοτελείου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης, Θεσσαλονίκη, 1970.
[9] Driault, Edouard, Lheritier, Michel, “Histoire diplomatique de la Grece de 1821 a nos jours”, εκδ. Les Presses Universitaires de France, Παρίσι, 1925, β’ τόμος.
[10] “Ατομικός Φάκελος ναυάρχου Ανδρέα Μιαούλη”, Ιστορικό Αρχείο Μουσείο Ύδρας, Ύδρα, γ’ τετράδιο.
[11] Chapuisat, Edouard, “Jean-Gabriel Eynard et son temps: 1775-1863”, εκδ. A. Jullien, Γενεύη, 1952.
[12] Καποδίστριας, Ιωάννης, “Επιστολαί διπλωματικαί, διοικητικαί και ιδιωτικαί, γραφείσαι από 8 Απριλίου 1827 μέχρι 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 1831”, εκδ. Κωνσταντίνου Ράλλη, Αθήνα, 1841, γ’ τόμος.
[13] Κουτσονίκας, Λάμπρος, “Γενική Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Επαναστάσεως”, εκδ. Δ. Καρακατζάνη, Αθήνα, 1863-1865, δ’ τόμος.
[14] Πρεβελάκης, Ελ.- Γλύτσης, Φ., “Επιτομαί εγγράφων του Βρετανικού Υπουργείου Εξωτερικών, Γενική Αλληλογραφία/Ελλάς”, εκδ. Ακαδημία Αθηνών, Αθήνα, 1975, α’ τόμος.
[15] Ευαγγελίδης, Τρύφων, “Ιστορία του Όθωνος, βασιλέως της Ελλάδος (1832-1862)”, εκδ. Α. Γαλανός, Αθήνα, 1894.
[16] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[17] Άννινος, Μπάμπης, “Χρονικά της βασιλείας του Όθωνος”, εκδ. Εστία, Αθήνα, 1889.
[18] Buttlar, Adrian von,  Η Οθωνική Ελλάδα και η συγκρότηση του ελληνικού κράτους”, εκδ. Οδυσσέας, Αθήνα, 2002.
[19] “Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως του Βασιλείου της Ελλάδος”, Ναύπλιο, ΦΕΚ 16/2/1833.
[20] Παπαδόπουλος – Βρεττός , Ανδρέας, “Πολιτικά σύμμικτα”, εκδ. Αγγελίδη, Αθήνα, 1840.
[21] Heideck, Karl von, “Die bayerische Philhellenen-Fahrt 1826-1829”, εκδ. J. Lindauersche Buchhandlung, Μόναχο, 1897.
[22] Ευαγγελίδης, Τρύφων, “Ιστορία του Όθωνος, βασιλέως της Ελλάδος (1832-1862)”, εκδ. Α. Γαλανός, Αθήνα, 1894.
[23] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[24] Hederer, Oswald, “ Friedrich von Gärtner 1792-1847. Leben – Werk – Schüler”, εκδ. Prestel Verlag, Μόναχο, 1976.
[25] Μακρυγιάννης, Ιωάννης, “Αρχεία Νεωτέρας Ιστορίας. Αρχείον του στρατηγού Ιωάννου Μακρυγιάννη”, επιμ. Γιάννης Βλαχογιάννης, εκδ. Σ.Κ. Βλαστός, Αθήνα, 1907, β’ τόμος.
[26] Δραγούμης, Νικόλαος, “Ιστορικαί Αναμνήσεις”, εκδ. Ερμής, Αθήνα, 1973, β’ τόμος.
[27] Prokesch von Osten, Anton, “Geschichte des Abfalls der Griechen vom Turkischen Reiche”, εκδ. Akademische Druck und Verlagsanstalt, Graz, 1970, γ’ τόμος.
[28] “Αρχείο Ιωάννη Κωλέττη”, εκδ. Ακαδημία Αθηνών, Αθήνα, 1996, τόμος Β2’.
[29] Βερναρδάκης, Δημήτριος, “Καποδίστριας και Όθων” εκδ. Ερμείας, Αθήνα, 2001.
[30] Galletti, Johann Georg August, Cannabich, Johann Günther Friedrich, Meynert, Hermann, “Allgemeine Weltkunde”, εκδ. C.A. Harthleben, Μόναχο, 1840.
[31] “Εφημερίδα της Κυβερνήσεως του Βασιλείου της Ελλάδος”, Αθήνα, 1837, ΦΕΚ 24/04/1837.
[32] Seidl, Wolf, “Bayern in Griechenland”, εκδ. Süddeutscher Verlag, Μόναχο, 1970.
[33] Isensee, Florian, “ Amalie 1818-1875: Herzogin von Oldenburg Königin von Griechenland”, εκδ. Kunst- u. Kulturkreis Rastede e.V. , Ολδεμβούργο, 2004.
[34] Καλευράς, Παναγιώτης, “Η Ρωσοφοβία και ο Πανσλαυισμός “, εκδ. Καρτερία, Αθήνα, 1860.
[35] Σταυρινού, Μιράντα, ”Η αγγλική πολιτική και το Κρητικό Ζήτημα 1831-1841”, εκδ. Δόμος, Αθήνα, 1986.
[36] Κλάψης, Αντώνης, “Πολιτική και διπλωματία της ελληνικής εθνικής ολοκλήρωσης”, 1821-1923, Εκδόσεις Πεδίο, Αθήνα, 2019.
[37] Κολοκοτρώνης, Γενναίος, “Απομνημονεύματα”, εκδ. Βεργίνα, Αθήνα, 2006.
[38] Βλ. στο ίδιο.
[39] Μελετόπουλος, Χαρίλαος, “Η Ευρωπαϊκή Διπλωματία εν Ελλάδι”, εκδ. Π.Δ. Σακελλαρίου, Αθήνα, 1888.
[40] Nerdinger, Winfried ,”Lange Ludwig“, εκδ. Duncker & Humblot, Βερολίνο, 1982.
[41] Δραγούμης, Νικόλαος, “Ιστορικαί Αναμνήσεις”, εκδ. Ερμής, Αθήνα, 1973, β’ τόμος.
[42] Φωτιάδης, Δημήτρης, “Όθωνας – Η μοναρχία”, εκδ. Αφοι Ζαχαρόπουλοι, Αθήνα, 1988.
[43] Κολοκοτρώνης, Γενναίος, “Απομνημονεύματα”, εκδ. Βεργίνα, Αθήνα, 2006.
[44] Φωτιάδης, Δημήτρης, “Όθωνας – Η έξωση”, εκδ. Αφοι Ζαχαρόπουλοι, Αθήνα, 1988.
[45] Ευαγγελίδης, Τρύφων, “Ιστορία του Όθωνος, βασιλέως της Ελλάδος (1832-1862)”, εκδ. Α. Γαλανός, Αθήνα, 1894.
[46] Bower, Leonard – Bolitho, Gordon, “Otho I, King of Greece: A Biography”,εκδ. Selwyn & Blunt, Λονδίνο, 1939.


Bibliography – Sources

  • Κωνσταντίνος (Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων), “Χωρίς Τίτλο”, εκδ. “Το Βήμα”, Αθήνα, 2015, α’ τόμος.
  • Bower, Leonard – Bolitho, Gordon, “Othon I, King of Greece: A Biography”, εκδ. Selwyn & Blunt, Λονδίνο, 1939.
  • Thiersch, Heinrich, “Friedrich Thiersch’s Leben (Aus seinen Briefen)”, εκδ. C.F. Winter, Λειψία, 1866, α’ τόμος.
  • Weis, Anton, “Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie“, εκδ. Duncker & Humblot, Λειψία, 1887.
  • Καποδίστριας, Ιωάννης, “Επιστολαί διπλωματικαί, διοικητικαί και ιδιωτικαί, γραφείσαι από 8 Απριλίου 1827 μέχρι 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 1831”, εκδ. Κωνσταντίνου Ράλλη, Αθήνα, 1841, γ’ τόμος.
  • Fleming, David C.,” John Capodistrias and the Conference of London (1828-1831)”, εκδ. Αριστοτελείου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης, Θεσσαλονίκη, 1970.
  • Driault, Edouard, Lheritier, Michel, “Histoire diplomatique de la Grèce de 1821 à nos jours”, εκδ. Les Presses Universitaires de France, Παρίσι, 1925, β’ τόμος.
  • “Ατομικός Φάκελος ναυάρχου Ανδρέα Μιαούλη”, Ιστορικό Αρχείο Μουσείο Ύδρας, Ύδρα, γ’ τετράδιο.
  • Chapuisat, Edouard, “Jean-Gabriel Eynard et son temps : 1775-1863”, εκδ. A. Jullien, Γενεύη, 1952.
  • Κουτσονίκας, Λάμπρος, “Γενική Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Επαναστάσεως”, εκδ. Δ. Καρακατζάνη, Αθήνα, 1863-1865, δ’ τόμος.
  • Πρεβελάκης, Ελ.- Γλύτσης, Φ., “Επιτομαί εγγράφων του Βρετανικού Υπουργείου Εξωτερικών, Γενική Αλληλογραφία/Ελλάς”, εκδ. Ακαδημία Αθηνών, Αθήνα, 1975, α’ τόμος.
  • Ευαγγελίδης, Τρύφων, “Ιστορία του Όθωνος, βασιλέως της Ελλάδος (1832-1862)”, εκδ. Α. Γαλανός, Αθήνα, 1894.
  • “Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως του Βασιλείου της Ελλάδος”, Ναύπλιο, ΦΕΚ 16/2/1833.
  • Παπαδόπουλος – Βρεττός, Ανδρέας, “Πολιτικά σύμμικτα”, εκδ. Αγγελίδη, Αθήνα, 1840.
  • Heideck, Karl von, “Die bayerische Philhellenen-Fahrt 1826-1829”, εκδ. J. Lindauersche Buchhandlung, Μόναχο, 1897.
  • Hederer, Oswald, “ Friedrich von Gärtner 1792 – 1847. Leben – Werk – Schüler”, εκδ. Prestel Verlag, Μόναχο, 1976.
  • Μακρυγιάννης, Ιωάννης, “Αρχεία Νεωτέρας Ιστορίας. Αρχείον του στρατηγού Ιωάννου Μακρυγιάννη”, επιμ. Γιάννης Βλαχογιάννης, εκδ. Σ.Κ. Βλαστός, Αθήνα, 1907, β’ τόμος.
  • Δραγούμης, Νικόλαος, “Ιστορικαί Αναμνήσεις”, εκδ. Ερμής, Αθήνα, 1973, β’ τόμος.
  • Prokesch von Osten, Anton, “Geschichte des Abfalls der Griechen vom Turkischen Reiche”, εκδ. Akademische Druck und Verlagsanstalt, Graz, 1970, γ’ τόμος.
  •  “Αρχείο Ιωάννη Κωλέττη”, εκδ. Ακαδημία Αθηνών, Αθήνα, 1996, τόμος Β2’.
  • Βερναρδάκης, Δημήτριος, “Καποδίστριας και Όθων” εκδ. Ερμείας, Αθήνα, 2001.
  • Galletti, Johann Georg August, Cannabich, Johann Günther Friedrich, Meynert, Hermann, “Allgemeine Weltkunde”, εκδ. C.A. Harthleben, Μόναχο, 1840.
  • “Εφημερίδα της Κυβερνήσεως του Βασιλείου της Ελλάδος”, Αθήνα, 1837, ΦΕΚ 24/04/1837.
  • Seidl, Wolf, “Bayern in Griechenland”, εκδ. Süddeutscher Verlag, Μόναχο, 1970.
  • Isensee, Florian, “Amalie 1818-1875: Herzogin von Oldenburg Königin von Griechenland”, εκδ. Kunst- u. Kulturkreis Rastede e.V., Ολδεμβούργο, 2004.
  • Καλευράς, Παναγιώτης, “Η Ρωσσοφοβία και ο Πανσλαυισμός“, εκδ. Καρτερία, Αθήνα, 1860.
  • Σταυρινού, Μιράντα, ”Η αγγλική πολιτική και το Κρητικό Ζήτημα 1831-1841”, εκδ. Δόμος, Αθήνα, 1986.
  • Κλάψης, Αντώνης, “Πολιτική και διπλωματία της ελληνικής εθνικής ολοκλήρωσης”, 1821-1923, Εκδόσεις Πεδίο, Αθήνα, 2019.
  • Κολοκοτρώνης, Γενναίος, “Απομνημονεύματα”, εκδ. Βεργίνα, Αθήνα, 2006.
  • Μελετόπουλος, Χαρίλαος, “Η Ευρωπαϊκή Διπλωματία εν Ελλάδι”, εκδ. Π.Δ. Σακελλαρίου, Αθήνα, 1888.
  • Nerdinger, Winfried ,”Lange, Ludwig“, εκδ. Duncker & Humblot, Βερολίνο, 1982.
  • Φωτιάδης, Δημήτρης, “Όθωνας – Η μοναρχία”, εκδ. Αφοι Ζαχαρόπουλοι, Αθήνα, 1988.
  • Φωτιάδης, Δημήτρης, “Όθωνας – Η έξωση”, εκδ. Αφοι Ζαχαρόπουλοι, Αθήνα, 1988.